Section 370-390 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 370-390 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 370 to 390 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 32 (Offences relating to marriage and parental rights and duties), Chapter 33 (Defamation), and Chapter 34 (Stealing) of the Code.

CHAPTER 32 – Offences relating to marriage and parental rights and duties

Section 370 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Bigamy

Any person who, having a husband or wife living, marries in any case in which such marriage is void by
reason of its taking place during the life of such husband or wife, is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for seven years.
This section of this Code does not extend to any person whose marriage with such husband or wife has
been dissolved or declared void by a court of competent jurisdiction, nor to any person who contracts a
marriage during the life of a former husband or wife, if such husband or wife, at the time of the
subsequent marriage, shall have been absent from such person for the space of seven years, and shall
not have been heard of by such person as being alive within that time.

Section 371 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Child‐stealing

Any person who, with intent to deprive any parent, guardian or other person who has the lawful care or
charge of a child under the age of twelve years, of the possession of such child, or with intent to steal
any article upon or about the person of any such child‐
(1) forcibly or fraudulently takes or entices away, or detains the child; or
(2) receives or harbours the child, knowing it to have been so taken or enticed away or detained,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
It is a defence to a charge of any of the offences defined in this section of this Code to prove t
hat the accused person claimed in good faith a right to the possession of the child, or, in the
case of an illegitimate child, is its mother or claimed to be its father.

Section 372 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Desertion of children

Any person who being the parent, guardian or other person having the lawful care or charge of a child
under the age of twelve years, and being able to maintain such child, wilfully and without lawful or
reasonable cause deserts the child and leaves it without means of support, is guilty of a misdemeanor
and is liable to imprisonment for one year.

CHAPTER 33 – Defamation

Section 373 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definition of defamatory matter

Defamatory matter is matter likely to injure the reputation of any person by exposing him to hatred,
contempt, or ridicule, or likely to damage any person in his profession or trade by any injury to his
reputation.
Such matter may be expressed in spoken words or in any audible sounds, or in words legibly marked on
any substance whatever, or by any sign or object signifying such matter otherwise than by words, and
may be expressed either directly or by insinuation or irony.
It is immaterial whether at the time of the publication of the defamatory matter, the person concerning
whom such matter is published is living or dead:
Provided that no prosecution for the publication of defamatory matter concerning a dead
person shall be instituted without the consent of the Attorney‐General of the Federation.

Section 374 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definition of publication

(1) For the purposes of this Code, the publication of defamatory matter is‐
(a) in the case of spoken words or audible sounds, the speaking of such words or the making of
such sounds in the hearing of the person defamed or any other person;
(b) in other cases, the exhibiting of it in public, or causing it to be read or seen, or showing or
delivering it, or causing it to be shown or delivered, with intent that it may be read or seen by
the person defamed or by any other person.
(2) Sounds where recorded shall, if defamatory, be deemed to be published if reproduced in any place
to the hearing of persons other than the person causing it to be reproduced.
(3) In this section‐
“recorded” means sounds collected or stored by means of tape, disc, cylinder or other means
whatsoever, where the sounds are capable of being reproduced or are intended for reproduction by
electrical or mechanical means at any time or from time to time thereafter, and includes the matrix, and
cognate expressions shall have the like meaning;
“sound” includes speech and mere noise.

Section 375 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Publication of defamatory matter

Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, any person who publishes any defamatory matter, is guilty of a
misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year; and any person who publishes any defamatory
matter knowing it to be false, is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 376 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Publishing defamatory matter with intent to extort

Any person who publishes, or threatens to publish, or offers to abstain from publishing, or offers to
prevent the publication of defamatory matter, with intent to extort money or other property, or with
intent to induce any person to give, confer, procure, or attempt to procure, to, upon, or for, any person,
any property or benefit of any kind, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 377 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Publication of truth for public benefit

The publication of defamatory matter is not an offence if the publication is, at the time it is made, for
the public benefit and if the defamatory matter is true.

Section 378 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Cases in which publication is absolutely privileged

The publication of defamatory matter is absolutely privileged, and no person is criminally liable in
respect thereof, in the following cases[
L.N. 257 of 1959. L.N. 112 of 1964. 1967 No. 27.]
(1) if the matter is published by the President, Minister or a Governor or by order of the President,
Minister or a Governor in any official document, Gazette or proceedings; or
(2) if the publication is made in a petition to the President, Minister, or a Governor; or
(3) if the publication takes place in proceedings held before or under the authority of any court, or
in any inquiry held under the authority of any Act, law, statute, or order, or under the authority
of the President, Minister, or a Governor; or
(4) if the publication takes place in an official report made by a person appointed to hold an inquiry
under the authority of any Act, law, statute, or Order in Council, or of the President, Minister, or
a Governor; or
(5) if the matter is published concerning a person subject to military discipline for the time being,
and relates to his conduct as a person subject to such discipline, and is published by some
person having authority over him in respect of such conduct, and to some person having
authority over him in respect of such conduct.
[L.N. 257 of 1959. L.N. 112 of 1964. 1967 No. 19. 1967 No. 27.]

Section 379 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Cases in which publication is conditionally privileged

The publication of defamatory matter is conditionally privileged, and no person is criminally liable in
respect thereof, in the following cases‐
(1) if the defamatory matter consists of an extract from, or an abstract of, a petition to, or a
Gazette or document published by or under the authority of, the President or a Governor of a State, or a
Minister, and the publication is made without ill‐will to the person defamed; or
(2) if the defamatory matter constitutes, in whole or in part, a fair report, for the information of
the public, of any public proceeding of any court, whether preliminary or final; or of any public
proceeding of any body, constituted, or authorised to hold such proceeding by any Act, law, statute or
order; or of any public meeting so far as the public is concerned in the matter published; if in every such
case the publication is made without ill‐will to the person defamed; or
(3) if the publication is for the information of the public at the request of any government
department or peace officer, or if the defamatory matter is any notice or report issued by such
department or officer, for the information of the public, and if in every such case the publication is made
without ill‐will to the person defamed; or
(4) if the defamatory matter consists of fair comment either on any matter the publication of
which, or on any report which, is hereinbefore in the preceding or this section referred to; or

(5) if the defamatory matter consists of fair comment upon the public conduct of any person in
public affairs, or upon the public conduct of any person employed in the public service in the discharge
of his public duties, or upon the character of any of such persons so far as it appears by such conduct; or
(6) if the defamatory matter consists of fair comment on any published book or other literary
production, or any composition or work of art, or performance publicly exhibited, or any other
communication made to the public on any subject; or of the character of the author of such book,
production, composition, work of art, or the person exhibiting such performance, so far as their
characters may appear therefrom respectively; or
(7) if the publication is in good faith for the purpose of seeking remedy or redress for any private
or public wrong or grievance from a person who has, or is reasonably believed by the person publishing
to have, the right to remedy or redress such wrong or grievance; or
(8) if the publication is made in good faith by a person having any lawful authority over another,
and is made by him in the course of a censure passed by him on the conduct of that other, in matters to
which such lawful authority relates; or
(9) if the publication is made on the invitation or challenge of the person defamed; or
(10) if the publication is made in order to answer or refute some other defamatory matter
published by the person defamed, concerning the person making the publication or some other person;
or

(11) if the defamatory matter constitutes an answer to inquiries made of the person publishing
it, relating to some subject as to which the person by whom or on whose behalf the inquiry is made, has,
or on reasonable grounds is believed by the person publishing to have, an interest in knowing the truth,
and if the publication is made in good faith for the purpose of giving information in respect of that
matter to that person; or

(12) if the defamatory matter constitutes information given to the person to whom the
defamatory matter is published, with respect to some subject as to which he has, or is on reasonable
grounds believed to have, such an interest in knowing the truth, as to make the conduct of the person
giving the information reasonable in the circumstances:
Provided that as regards paragraphs (7), (8), (9), (10) and (11) of this section, the person making
the publication honestly believes the matter published to be true, the matter published is relevant to
the matters the existence of which may excuse the publication of defamatory matter, and the manner
and extent of the publication do not exceed what is reasonably sufficient for the occasion; and as
regards paragraphs (12) that the defamatory matter is relevant to the subject therein mentioned, and
that it is either true, or is made without ill‐will to the person defamed and in the honest belief, on
reasonable grounds, that it is true.

Section 380 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Publication in a periodical

(1) In this section and section 381 of this Code, the term “periodical” includes any newspaper,
review, magazine, or other writing or print, published periodically.
(2) The criminal responsibility of the proprietor, editor, or publisher, of any periodical for the
publication of any defamatory matter contained therein, may be rebutted by proof that such publication
took place without his knowledge and without negligence on his part.

Section 381 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Protection of innocent sellers of books and newspapers

The sale by any person of any book, pamphlet, or other printed or written matter, or of any number or
part of any periodical, is not a publication thereof for the purposes of this Chapter, unless such person
knows that such book, pamphlet, printed or written matter, or number or part, contains defamatory
matter; or, in the case of any part or number of any periodical, that such periodical habitually contains
defamatory matter.

CHAPTER 34 – Stealing

Section 382 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Things capable of being stolen

Every inanimate thing whatever which is the property of any person, and which is movable, is capable of
being stolen.
Every inanimate thing which is the property of any person, and which is capable of being made movable,
is capable of being stolen as soon as it becomes movable, although it is made movable in order to steal
it.
Every tame animal, whether tame by nature or wild by nature and tamed, which is the property of any
person, is capable of being stolen: but tame pigeons are not capable of being stolen except while they
are in a pigeon‐house or on their owner’s land.
A thing in action is capable of being stolen.
Animals wild by nature, of a kind which is not ordinarily found in a condition of natural liberty in Nigeria,
which are the property of any person, and which are usually kept in a state of confinement, are capable
of being stolen, whether they are actually in confinement or have escaped from confinement.
[1966 No. 84.]
Animals wild by nature, of a kind which is ordinarily found in a condition of natural liberty in Nigeria,
which are the property of any person, are capable of being stolen while they are in confinement and
while they are being actually pursued after escaping from confinement, but not at any other time.
An animal wild by nature is deemed to be in a state of confinement so long as it is in a den, cage, sty,
tank, or other small enclosure, or is otherwise so placed that it cannot escape and that its owner can
take possession of it at pleasure.
An ostrich on an enclosed ostrich farm is capable of being stolen. The term “animal” includes any living
creature other than mankind.
Wild animals in the enjoyment of their natural liberty are not capable of being stolen, but their dead
bodies are capable of being stolen.
Everything produced by or forming part of the body of an animal capable of being stolen is capable of
being stolen.

Section 383 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definition of stealing

(1) A person who fraudulently takes anything capable of being stolen, or fraudulently converts
to his own use or to the use of any other person anything capable of being stolen, is said to steal that
thing.
(2) A person who takes or converts anything capable of being stolen IS deemed to do so
fraudulently If he does so with any of the following intents‐
(a) an intent permanently to deprive the owner of the thing of it;
(b) an intent permanently to deprive any person who has any special property in the thing
of such property;
(c) an intent to use the thing as a pledge or security;
(d) an intent to part with it on a condition as to its return which the person taking or
converting it may be unable to perform;
(e) an intent to deal with it in such a manner that it cannot be returned in the condition in
which it was at the time of the taking or conversion;
(f) in the case of money, an intent to use it at the will of the person who takes or converts
it, although he may intend afterwards to repay the amount to the owner.
The term “special property” includes any charge or lien upon the thing in question, and any right arising
from or dependent upon holding possession of the thing in question, whether by the person entitled to
such right or by some other person for his benefit.
(3) The taking or conversion may be fraudulent, although it is effected without secrecy or
attempts at concealment.
(4) In the case of conversion, it is immaterial whether the thing converted is taken for the
purpose of conversion, or whether it is at the time of the conversion in the possession of the person
who converts it. It is also immaterial that the person who converts the property is the holder of a power
of attorney for the disposition of it, or is otherwise authorised to dispose of the property.
(5) When a thing converted has been lost by the owner and found by the person who converts
it, the conversion is not deemed to be fraudulent if at the time of the conversion the person taking or
converting the thing does not know who is the owner, and believes on reasonable grounds that the
owner cannot be discovered.
(6) A person shall not be deemed to take a thing unless he moved the thing or causes it to move.

Section 384 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Special cases

(1) When a factor or agent pledges or gives a lien on any goods or documents of title to goods
entrusted to him for the purpose of sale or otherwise for any sum of money not greater than the
amount due to him from his principal at the time of pledging or giving the lien, together with the
amount of any bill of exchange or promissory note accepted or made by him for or on account of his
principal, such dealing with the goods or document of title is not deemed to be stealing.
(2) When a servant, contrary to his master’s orders, takes from his possession any food in order
that it may be given to an animal belonging to or in the possession of his master, such taking is not
deemed to be stealing.

Section 385 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Funds, etc., held under direction

When a person receives, either alone or jointly with another person, any money or valuable security or a
power of attorney for the sale, mortgage, pledge, or other disposition, of any property, whether capable
of being stolen or not, with a direction in either case that such money or any part thereof, or any other
money received in exchange for it, or any part thereof, or the proceeds or any part of the proceeds of
such security, or of such security, or of such mortgage, pledge, or other disposition, shall be applied to
any purpose or paid to any person specified in the direction, such money and proceeds are deemed to
be the property of the person from whom the money, security or power of attorney, was received until
the direction has been complied with:
Provided that if the person receiving the money, security, or power of attorney, and the person from
whom he receives it, ordinarily deal with each other on such terms that in the absence of any special
direction all money paid to the former on account of the latter would be properly treated as an item in a
debtor and creditor account between them, the former cannot be charged with stealing the money or
any proceeds unless the direction is in writing.

Section 386 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Funds, etc., received by agents for sale

When a person receives, either alone or jointly with another person, any property from another on
terms authorising or requiring him to sell it or otherwise dispose of it, and requiring him to pay or
account for the proceeds of the property, or any part of such proceeds, or to deliver anything received
in exchange of the property, to the person from whom it is received, or some other person, then the
proceeds of the property, and anything so received in exchange for it, are deemed to be the property of
the person from whom the property was so received, until they have been disposed of in accordance
with the terms on which the property was received, unless it is a part of those terms that the proceeds,
if any, shall form an item in a debtor and creditor account between him and the person to whom he is to
pay them or account for them, and that the relation of debtor and creditor only shall exist between
them in respect thereof.

Section 387 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Money received for another

When a person receives, either alone or jointly with another person, any money on behalf of another,
the money is deemed to be the property of the person on whose behalf it is received, unless the money
is received on the terms that it shall form an item in a debtor and creditor account, and that the relation
of debtor and creditor only shall exist between the parties in respect of it.

Section 388 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Stealing by persons having an interest in the thing stolen

When any person takes or converts anything capable of being stolen, in such circumstances as would
otherwise amount to stealing, it is immaterial that he himself has a special property or interest therein
or that he himself is the owner of the thing taken or converted subject to some special property or
interest of some other person therein; or that he is lessee of the thing, or that he himself is one of two
or more joint owners of the thing; or that he is a director or officer of a corporation or company or
society who are the owners of it.

Section 389 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Husband and wife

A person who, while a man and his wife are living together, procures either of them to deal with
anything which is, to his knowledge, the property of the other in a manner which would be stealing, if
they were not married, is deemed to have stolen the thing, and may be charged with stealing it.

Section 390 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Punishment of stealing

Any person who steals anything capable of being stolen, is guilty of a felony and is liable, if no other
punishment is provided, to imprisonment for three years.
Punishment in special cases
Stealing wills
(1) If the thing stolen is a testamentary instrument, whether the testator is living or dead, the
offender is liable to imprisonment for life.
Stealing postal matter, etc.
(2) If the thing stolen is a postal matter or any chattel, money, or valuable security, contained in
any postal matter, the offender is liable to imprisonment for life.
Stealing cattle
(3) If the thing stolen is any of the things following, that it to say: a horse, mare, gelding, ass,
mule, camel, bull, cow, ox, ram, ewe, wether, goat or pig, or the young of any such animal, the offender
is liable on conviction to pay a fine of two hundred naira or to imprisonment for two years.
Stealing from the person; stealing goods in transit, etc.
(4) If the offence is committed in any of the following circumstances‐
(a) if the thing is stolen from the person of another;
(b) if the thing is stolen in a dwelling‐house, and its value exceeds ten naira, or the offender
at or immediately before or after the time of stealing uses or threatens to use violence
to any person in the dwelling‐house;
(c) if the thing is stolen from any kind of vessel or vehicle or place of deposit used for the
conveyance or custody of goods in transit from one place to another;
(d) if the thing stolen is attached to or forms part of a railway;
(e) if the thing is stolen from a vessel which is in distress or wrecked or stranded;
(f) if the thing is stolen from a public office in which it is deposited or kept;
(g) if the offender, in order to commit the offence, opens any locked room, box, or other
receptacle, by means of a key or other instrument,
the offender is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
Stealing by persons in public service
(5) If the offender is a person employed in the public service and the thing stolen is the property
of the State, or came into the possession of the offender by virtue of his employment, he is liable to
imprisonment for seven years.
Stealing by clerks and servants
(6) If the offender is a clerk or servant and the thing stolen is the property of his employer or
came into the possession of the offender on account of his employer, he is liable to imprisonment for
seven years.
Stealing by directors or officers of companies
(7) If the offender is a director or officer of a corporation or company, and the thing stolen is the
property of the corporation or company, he is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
Stealing by agents, etc.
(8) If the thing stolen is any of the following things‐
(a) property which has been received by the offender with a power of attorney for the
disposition thereof;
(b) property which has been entrusted to the offender either alone or jointly with any other
person for him to retain in safe custody or to apply, pay or deliver for any purpose or to
any person the same or any part thereof or any proceeds thereof;
(c) property which has been received by the offender either alone or jointly with any other
person for or on account of any other person;
(d) the whole or part of the proceeds of any valuable security which has been received by
the offender with a direction that the proceeds thereof should be applied to any
purpose or paid to any person specified in the direction;
(e) the whole or part of the proceeds arising from any disposition of any property which
have been received by the offender by virtue of a power of attorney for such
disposition, such
power of attorney having been received by the offender with a direction that such proceeds should be
applied to any purpose or paid to any person specified in the direction,
the offender is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Stealing property of value of N1,000
(9) If the thing stolen is of the value of one thousand naira or upwards, the offender is liable to
imprisonment for seven years.

Stealing by tenants or lodgers
(10) If the thing stolen is a fixture or chattel let to the offender to be used by him with a house
or lodging, and its value exceeds ten naira, he is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
(10A) If the thing stolen is a motor vehicle or motor cycle the offender shall upon conviction be
sentenced to imprisonment for not less than five years but not more than seven years without the
option of a fine.
Stealing after previous conviction
(11) If the offender, before committing the offence, has been convicted of any of the felonies or
misdemeanors defined in this division of this Part of this Code, he is liable to imprisonment for seven
years.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 351-369 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 351-369 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 351 to 369 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 29 (Assaults), Chapter 30 (Assaults on females: abduction) and Chapter 31 (Offences against liberty: slave dealing) of the Code.

Section 351 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Punishment of assault

Any person who unlawfully assaults another is guilty of a misdemeanor, and is liable, if no greater
punishment is provided, to imprisonment for one year.

Section 352 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Assault with intent to commit unnatural offence

Any person who assaults another with intent to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order
of nature is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 353 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Indecent assault on males

Any person who unlawfully and indecently assaults any male person is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 354 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Assaults on person protecting wrecks

Any person who unlawfully assaults and uses actual violence to a peace officer or any other person
while acting in the execution of his duty in or concerning the preservation of a vessel in distress, or of
any vessel or goods wrecked or stranded or lying under water, is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for seven years.

Section 355 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Assaults occasioning harm

Any person who unlawfully assaults another and thereby does him harm, is guilty of a felony and is
liable to imprisonment for three years.

Section 356 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Serious assaults

Any person who(
1) assaults another with intent to commit a felony, or with intent to resist or prevent the lawful
arrest or detention of himself or of any other person; or
(2) assaults, resists, or wilfully obstructs a police officer while acting in the execution of his duty,
or any person acting in aid of a police officer while so acting; or
(3) unlawfully assaults, resists, or obstructs, any person engaged in the lawful execution of any
process against any property, or in making a lawful distress, while so engaged; or
(4) assaults, resists, or obstructs any person engaged in such lawful execution of process, or in
making a lawful distress, with intent to rescue any property lawfully taken under such process or
distress; or
(5) assaults any person on account of any act done by him in the execution of any duty imposed
on him by law; or
(6) assaults any person in pursuance of any unlawful conspiracy respecting any manufacture,
trade, business, or occupation, or respecting any person or persons concerned or employed in any
manufacture, trade, business, or occupation, or the wages of any such person or person,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.

CHAPTER 30 – Assaults on females: abduction

Section 357 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definition of rape

Any person who has unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman or girl, without her consent, or with her
consent, if the consent is obtained by force or by means of threats or intimidation of any kind, or by fear
of harm, or by means of false and fraudulent representation as to the nature of the act, or, in the case of
a married woman, by personating her husband, is guilty of an offence which is called rape.

Section 358 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Punishment of rape

Any person who commits the offence of rape is liable to imprisonment for life, with or without caning.
[30 of 1960.]

Section 359 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Attempt to commit rape

Any person who attempts to commit the offence of rape is guilty of a felony, and is liable to
imprisonment for fourteen years, with or without caning.
[30 of 1960.]

Section 360 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Indecent assaults on females

Any person who unlawfully and indecently assaults a woman or girl is guilty of a misdemeanor, and is
liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 361 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Abduction

Any person who, with intent to marry or carnally know a female of any age, or to cause her to be
married, or carnally known by any other person, takes her away, or detains her against her will, is guilty
of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 362 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Abduction of girls under sixteen

Any person who unlawfully takes an unmarried girl under the age of sixteen years out of the custody or
protection of her father or mother or other person having the lawful care or charge of her, and against
the will of such father or mother or other person, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and is liable to
imprisonment for two years.

Section 363 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Ignorance of age of girl, or consent, no defence

In the case of proceedings in respect of an offence under section 362 of this Code‐
(a) it is immaterial that the offender believed the girl to be of or above the age of sixteen
years;
(b) it is immaterial that the girl was taken with her own consent or at her own suggestion.

CHAPTER 31 – Offences against liberty: slave dealing

Section 364 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Kidnapping

Any person who‐
(1) unlawfully imprisons any person, and takes him out of Nigeria without his consent; or
(2) unlawfully imprisons any person within Nigeria in such a manner as to prevent him from
applying to a court for his release or from discovering to any other person the place where he is
imprisoned, or in such a manner as to prevent any person entitled to have access to him from
discovering the place where he is imprisoned,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for ten years.

Section 365 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Deprivation of liberty

Any person who unlawfully confines or detains another in any place against his will, or
otherwise unlawfully deprives another of his personal liberty, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to
imprisonment for two years.

Section 366 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Compelling action by intimidation

Subject to the provisions of the Trade Unions Act, any person who, with intent to prevent or hinder any
other person from doing any act which he is lawfully entitled to do, or with intent to compel him to do
any act which he is lawfully entitled to abstain from doing, or to abstain from doing any act which he is
lawfully entitled to do‐
[Cap. Tl4.]
(a) threatens such other person with injury to his person, reputation, or property, or to the
person, reputation, or property of anyone in whom he is interested; or
(b) persistently follows such other person about from place to place; or
(c) hides any tools, clothes, or other property owned or used by such other person, or
deprives him of or hinders him in the use thereof; or
(d) watches or besets the house or other place where such other person resides, or works,
or carries on business, or happens to be, or the approach to such house or place; or
(e) follows such other person with two or more other persons in a disorderly manner in or
through any street or road; or
(f) induces or attempts to induce that person to believe that he, or any person in whom he
is interested, will become an object of displeasure to the Government of Nigeria or to
any person employed in the public service of Nigeria,
is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for one year.

Section 367 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Compelling action by assault

Any person who, with any of the intents in section 366 of this Code mentioned, assaults any other
person or anyone in whom he is interested, is guilty of a felony and liable to imprisonment for five years.

Section 368 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Concealment of matters affecting liberty

Any person who‐
(1) being required by law to keep any record touching any matter relating to any person in
confinement, refuses or neglects to keep such record, or makes in such record an entry which, in any
material particular, is, to his knowledge, false; or
(2) being required by law to give any information to any person touching any person in confinement, or
to show to any person, any person in confinement, or any place in which a person is confined‐
(a) refuses or neglects to give such information or to show such person or place to any person to
whom he is so required to give the information or show the person or place; or
(b) gives to any person to whom he is so required to give it, information touching any such matter
which, in any material particular, is to his knowledge, false,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.

Section 369 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Slave dealing

Any person who‐
(1) deals or trades in, purchases, sells, transfers or takes any slave;
(2) deals or trades in, purchases, sells, transfers or takes any person in order or so that such
person should be held or treated as a slave;
(3) places or receives any person in servitude as a pledge or security for debt whether then due
and owing, or to be incurred or contingent, whether under the name of a pawn or by whatever other
name such person may be called or known;
(4) conveys or induces any person to come within the limits of Nigeria in order or so that such
person should be held, possessed, dealt or traded in, purchased, sold, or transferred as a slave, or be
placed in servitude as a pledge or security for debt;
(5) conveys or sends or induces any person to go out of the limits of Nigeria in order or so that
such person should be possessed, dealt or traded in, purchased, sold, or transferred as a slave, or be
placed in servitude as a pledge or security for debt;
(6) whether or not a citizen of Nigeria holds or possesses in Nigeria any person as a slave;
(7) enters into any contract or agreement with or without consideration for doing any of the
acts or accomplishing any of the purposes herein above enumerated, is guilty of slave dealing and is
liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 330-350 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 330-350 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 330 to 350 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 28 (Offences endangering life or health) of the Act.

Section 330 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Disabling in order to commit felony or misdemeanour

Any person who, by any means calculated to choke, suffocate or strangle, and with intent to commit or
to facilitate the commission of a felony or misdemeanor, or to facilitate the flight of an offender after
the commission or attempted commission of a felony or misdemeanor, renders or attempts to render
any person incapable of resistance, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life, with or
without caning.
[30 of 1960.]

Section 331 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Stupefying in order to commit felony or misdemeanour

Any person who, with intent to commit or to facilitate the commission of a felony or misdemeanor or to
facilitate the flight of an offender after the commission or attempted commission of a felony or
misdemeanor, administers or attempts to administer any stupefying or overpowering drug or thing to
any person, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 332 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Acts intended to cause grievous harm or prevent arrest

Any person who, with intent to maim, disfigure or disable, any person, or to do some grievous harm to
any person, or to resist or prevent the lawful arrest or detention of any person‐
(1) unlawfully wounds or does any grievous harm to any person by any means whatever; or
(2) unlawfully attempts in any manner to strike any person with any kind of projectile or with a
spear, sword, knife, or other dangerous or offensive weapon; or
(3) unlawfully causes any explosive substance to explode; or
(4) sends or delivers any explosive substance or other dangerous or noxious thing to any person;
or
(5) causes any such substance or thing to be taken or received by any person; or
(6) puts any corrosive fluid or any destructive or explosion substances in any place; or
(7) unlawfully casts or throws any such fluid or substances at or upon any person, or otherwise
applies any such fluid or substances to the person of any person,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 333 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Preventing escape from wreck

Any person who unlawfully‐
(1) prevents or obstructs any person who is on board of, or is escaping from a vessel which is in
distress or wrecked, in his endeavours to save his life; or
(2) obstructs any person in his endeavours to save the life of any person so situated,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 334 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Intentionally endangering safety of person travelling by railway

Any person who, with intent to injure or to endanger the safety of any person travelling by any railway,
whether a particular person or not‐
(1) places anything on the railway; or
(2) deals with the railway, or with anything whatever upon or near the railway, in such a manner
as to affect or endanger the free and safe use of the railway or the safety of any such person; or
(3) shoots or throws anything at, into, or upon, or causes anything to come into contact with,
any person or thing on the railway; or
(4) shows any light or signal, or in any way deals with any existing light or signal, upon or near
the railway; or
(5) by any omission to do any act which it is his duty to do causes the safety of any such person
to be endangered,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life, with or without caning.
[30 of 1960.]

Section 335 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Grievous harm

Any person who unlawfully does grievous harm to another is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for seven years.

Section 336 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Attempting to injure by explosive substances

Any person who unlawfully, and with intent to do any harm to another, puts any explosive substance in
any place whatever, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 337 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Maliciously administering poison with intent to harm

Any person who unlawfully, and with intent to injure or annoy another, causes any poison or other
noxious thing to be administered to, or taken by, any person, and thereby endangers his life, or does
him some grievous harm, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 338 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Wounding and similar acts

Any person who‐
(1) unlawfully wounds another; or
(2) unlawfully, and with intent to injure or annoy any person, causes any poison or other
noxious thing to be administered to, or taken by, any person,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.

Section 339 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Failure to supply necessaries

Any person who, being charged with the duty of providing for another the necessaries of life, without
lawful excuse fails to do so, whereby the life of that other is or is likely to be endangered, or his health is
or is likely to be permanently injured, is guilty of a felony and liable to imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 340 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Endangering life or health of apprentices or servants

Any person who, being charged as a master or mistress with the duty of providing necessary food,
clothing, or lodging, for a servant or apprentice under the age of sixteen years, unlawfully fails to
perform that duty, or in any other manner does any harm or causes any harm to be done to such
servant or apprentice, whereby, in either case, the life of such servant or apprentice is or is likely to be
endangered, or his health is likely to be permanently injured, is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 341 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Abandoning or exposing children

Any person who unlawfully abandons or exposes a child under the age of seven years, in such a manner
that any grievous harm is likely to be caused to it, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for
five years.

Section 342 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Setting man‐trap

Any person who sets or places any spring‐gun, man‐trap or other engine calculated to destroy human
life or to inflict grievous harm, or causes any such thing to be set or placed with the intent that it may kill
or inflict grievous harm upon a trespasser or any person coming in contact with it, or sets or places any
such thing in any such place and in any such manner that it is likely to cause any such result, is guilty of a
felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
Any person who knowingly permits any such spring‐gun, man‐trap, or other engine, which has been set
or placed by another person in any such place and in any such manner that it is likely to cause any such
result, to continue to be so set or placed in any place which is then in, or afterwards comes into, his
possession or occupation, is deemed to have set and placed the gun, trap, or engine, with the intent
aforesaid.
This section of this Code, does not make it unlawful to set any gun or trap such as is usually set for the
purpose of destroying vermin, or to set any spring‐gun, man‐trap, or engine, at night in a dwelling‐house
for the protection of the dwelling‐house.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 343 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Reckless and negligent acts

(1) Any person who in a manner so rash or negligent as to endanger human life or to be likely to
cause harm to any other person‐
(a) drives any vehicle or rides on any public way; or
(b) navigates, or takes part in the navigation or working of, any vessel; or
(c) does any act with fire or any combustible matter, or omits to take precautions against
any probable danger from any fire or any combustible matter in his possession; or
(d) omits to take precautions against any probable danger from any animal in his
possession; or
(e) gives medical or surgical treatment to any person whom he has undertaken to treat; or
(f) dispenses, supplies, sells, administers, or gives away, any medicine, or poisonous or
dangerous matter; or
(g) does any act with respect to, or omits to take proper precautions against any probable
danger from, any machinery of which he is solely or partly in charge; or
(h) does any act with respect to, or omits to take proper precautions against any probable
danger from, any explosive in his possession,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year.
(2) Any person who conveys or causes to be conveyed, for hire, any person by water, in a vessel
in such a state or so loaded as to be unsafe, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for
one year.

Section 344 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Negligent acts causing harm

Any person who unlawfully does any act, or omits to do any act which it is his duty to do, not being an
act or omission specified in section 343 of this Code, by which act or omission harm is caused to any
person, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for six months.

Section 345 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Sending unseaworthy ship to sea

(1) Any person who sends or attempts to send or is party to sending or attempting to send a
Nigerian ship to sea in such an unseaworthy state that the life of any person is likely to be thereby
endangered, is guilty of a misdemeanor, unless he proves either that he used all reasonable means to
insure her being sent to sea in a seaworthy state, or that her going to sea in such an unseaworthy state
was in the circumstances reasonable and justifiable.
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]
(2) The master of a Nigerian ship who knowingly takes the same to sea in such an unseaworthy
state that the life of any person is likely to be thereby endangered, is guilty of a misdemeanor, unless he
proves that her going to sea in such an unseaworthy state was in the circumstances reasonable and
justifiable.
(3) Any person convicted of a misdemeanor under this section of this Code is liable to
imprisonment for two years.
(4) A prosecution shall not be instituted in respect of an offence under this section of this Code
otherwise than by or with the consent of a law officer.

Section 346 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Endangering safety of persons travelling by railway

Any person who, by any unlawful act, or by any omission to do any act which it is his duty to do, causes
the safety of any person travelling by any railway to be endangered, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is
liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 347 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Endangering steamships by tampering with machinery

Any person who, being a person having actual control over a steam vessel, or over any part of the
machinery of a steam vessel, does any act or makes any omission or is privy to any act or omission with
respect to the machinery of the vessel, whereby to his knowledge, the safety of any person on board the
vessel is or is likely to be endangered, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 348 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

The like by engineers

Any person who is an engineer, or one of the engineers, in charge of the machinery of a steam vessel at
any time when any act is done or omitted to be done by any other person with respect to the machinery
of the vessel, whereby the safety of any person on board the vessel is, or is likely to be endangered, is
guilty of a simple offence and is liable to a fine of two hundred naira.
It is a defence to a charge of the offence defined in this section of this Code to prove that the act or
omission was done or made without the knowledge of the accused person, and without any neglect or
default on his part.

Section 349 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Evading laws as to shipping dangerous goods

Any person who knowingly sends by any vessel, or carries in any vessel, any explosive substance, or any
acid, or other thing of a dangerous or destructive nature, under false description of the substance or
thing or with a false description of the sender thereof, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment
for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 350 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Landing, etc., explosives Any person who‐

(1) being charged by law with any duty respecting the shipping, unshipping, landing, putting off
shore, conveyance, delivery or storage of any explosive substance, or of any acid, or other thing of a
dangerous or destructive nature, from any vessel, fails to perform that duty; or
(2) being concerned in the shipping, unshipping, landing, putting off shore, conveyance, delivery
or storage of any such substance, acid or thing, violates the provisions of the laws relating to such
shipping, unshipping, landing, putting off shore, conveyance, delivery or storage,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
This section of this Code does not apply to any explosive, acid or other thing, the property of the State,
while it is under the control of an officer of the armed forces of Nigeria.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 300-329 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 300-329 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 300 to 329 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 26 (Duties relating to the preservation of human life) and Chapter 27 (Homicide; Suicide; Infanticide; Concealment of Birth; Unlawful possession of Human Head) of the Act.

Section 300 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Duty to provide necessaries

It is the duty of every person having charge of another who is unable by reason of age, sickness,
unsoundness of mind, detention or any other cause to withdraw himself from such charge, and who is
unable to provide himself with the necessaries of life, whether the charge is undertaken under a
contract, or is imposed by law, or arises by reason of any act, whether lawful or unlawful, of the person
who has such charge, to provide for that other person the necessaries of life; and he is held to have
caused any consequences which result to the life or health of the other person by reason of any
omission to perform that duty.

Section 301 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Duty of head of family

It is the duty of every person who, as head of a family, has charge of a child under the age of fourteen
years, being a member of his household, to provide the necessaries of life for such child; and he is held
to have caused any consequences which result to the life or health of the child by reason of any
omission to perform that duty, whether the child is helpless or not.

Section 302 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Duty of masters

It is the duty of every person who as master or mistress has contracted to provide necessary food,
clothing, or lodging, for any servant or apprentice under the age of sixteen years, to provide the same;
and he or she is held to have caused any consequences which result to the life or health of the servant
or apprentice by reason of any omission to perform that duty.

Section 303 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Duty of persons doing dangerous acts

It is the duty of every person who, except in a case of necessity, undertakes to administer surgical or
medical treatment to any other person, or to do any other lawful act which is or may be dangerous to
human life or health, to have reasonable skill and to use reasonable care in doing such act; and he is
held to have caused any consequences which result to the life or health of any person by reason of any
omission to observe or perform that duty.

Section 304 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Duty of persons in charge of dangerous things

It is the duty of every person who has in his charge or under his control anything, whether living or
inanimate, and whether moving or stationary, of such a nature that, in the absence of care or precaution
in its use or management, the life, safety, or health of any person may be endangered, to use
reasonable care and take reasonable precautions to avoid such danger; and he is held to have caused
any consequences which result to the life or health of any person by reason of any omission to perform
that duty.

Section 305 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Duty to do certain acts

When a person undertakes to do any act, the omission to do which is or may be dangerous to human life
or health, it is his duty to do that act; and he is held to have caused any consequences which result to
the life or health of any person by reason of any omission to perform that duty.

Section 305A of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Breach of contract of person employed in certain services

(1) Any person employed in any undertaking concerned in the supply of electricity or water, who
maliciously breaks his contract of service, knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that the
probable consequence of his so doing, either alone or in combination with others, will be to deprive the
community or any part of thereof either wholly or to a great extent of the supply of electricity or water,
is guilty of an offence.
(2) Any person who maliciously breaks a contract of service knowing or having reasonable cause
to believe that the probable consequences of his so doing, either alone or in combination with others,
will be to endanger human life or seriously to endanger public health, including the health of the
inmates of a hospital or similar institution, or to cause serious bodily injury, or to expose valuable
property, whether real or personal, to destruction or serious injury, is guilty of an offence.
(3) For the purpose of this section‐
(i) “maliciously” means with the intention of producing any of the consequences set out
in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, as the case may be, or with a reckless disregard of
whether such consequences are produced or not, and
(ii) the termination of any contract of service, either alone or in combination with others,
on less than seven days’ notice of intention so to terminate, in such circumstances that
the actual or probable consequences of the termination are those set out in subsection
(1) or (2) of this section, shall, where length of such notice required by any enactment,
or by any contract or services, is more than seven days, be deemed to be a malicious
breach of contract, and the words “maliciously breaks” in this section of this Code shall
be construed accordingly.
(4) Any person guilty of an offence against any of the provisions of this section of this Code is
liable, on conviction, to a fine of one hundred naira or to imprisonment for six months or to both such
fine and imprisonment.
(5) No prosecution for an offence under this section of this Code shall be constituted without
the written consent of the Attorney‐General of the Federation.

Section 306 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Killing of a human being unlawful

It is unlawful to kill any person unless such killing is authorised or justified or excused by law. 307. When
a child becomes a human being

Section 307 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

When a child becomes a human being

A child becomes a person capable of being killed when it has completely proceeded in a living state from
the body of its mother, whether it has breathed or not, and whether it has an independent circulation or
not, and whether the navel‐string is severed or not.

Section 308 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Definition of killing

Except as hereinafter set forth, any person who causes the death of another, directly or indirectly, by
any means whatever, is deemed to have killed that other person.

Section 309 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Death by acts done at childbirth

When a child dies in consequence of an act done or omitted to be done by any person before or during
its birth, the person who did or omitted to do such acts is deemed to have killed the child.

Section 310 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Causing death by threats

A person who, by threat or intimidation or by deceit, causes another person to do an act or make an
omission which results in the death of that other person, is deemed to have killed him.

Section 311 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Acceleration of death

A person who does any act or makes any omission which hastens the death of another person who,
when the act is done or the omission is made, is labouring under some disorder or disease arising from
another cause, is deemed to have killed that other person.

Section 312 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

When injury or death might be prevented by proper precaution

When a person causes bodily injury to another from which death results, it is immaterial that the injury
might have been avoided by proper precaution on the part of the person injured, or that his death from
that injury might have been prevented by proper care or treatment.

Section 313 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Injury causing death in consequence of subsequent treatment

When a person does grievous harm to another, and such other person has recourse to surgical or
medical treatment, and death results either from the injury or the treatment, he is deemed to have
killed that other person, although the immediate cause of death was the surgical or medical treatment,
provided that the treatment was reasonably proper under the circumstances, and was applied in good
faith.

Section 314 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Limitation as to time of death

A person is not deemed to have killed another, if the death of that other person does not take place
within a year and a day of the cause of death.
Such period is reckoned inclusive of the day on which the last unlawful act contributing to the cause of
death was done.
When the cause of death is an omission to observe or perform a duty, the period is reckoned inclusive of
the day on which the omission ceased.
When the cause of death is in part an unlawful act, and in part an omission to observe or perform a
duty, the period is reckoned inclusive of the day on which the last unlawful act was done or the day on
which the omission ceased, whichever is the later.

Section 315 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Unlawful homicide

Any person who unlawfully kills another is guilty of an offence which is called murder or manslaughter,
according to the circumstances of the case.

Section 316 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Definition of murder

Except as hereinafter set forth, a person who unlawfully kills another under any of the following
circumstances, that is to say‐
(1) if the offender intends to cause the death of the person killed, or that of some other person;
(2) if the offender intends to do to the person killed or to some other person some grievous
harm;
(3) if death is caused by means of an act done in the prosecution of an unlawful purpose, which
act is of such a nature as to be likely to endanger human life;
(4) if the offender intends to do grievous harm to some person for the purpose of facilitating the
commission of an offence which is such that the offender may be arrested without warrant, or for the
purpose of facilitating the flight of an offender who has committed or attempted to commit any such
offence;
(5) if death is caused by administering any stupefying or overpowering things for either of the
purposes last aforesaid;
(6) if death is caused by wilfully stopping the breath of any person for either of such purposes,
is guilty of murder.
In the second case it is immaterial that the offender did not intend to hurt the particular person who is
killed.
In the third case it is immaterial that the offender did not intend to hurt any person.
In the three last cases it is immaterial that the offender did not intend to cause death or did not know
that death was likely to result.

Section 317 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Definition of manslaughter

A person who unlawfully kills another in such circumstances as not to constitute murder is guilty of
manslaughter.

Section 318 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Killing on provocation

When a person who unlawfully kills another in circumstances which, but for the provisions of this
section of this Code, would constitute murder, does the act which causes death in the heat of passion
caused by grave and sudden provocation, and before there is time for his passion to cool, he is guilty of
manslaughter only.
[1966 No. 84.]

Section 319 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Punishment of murder: provision for juveniles: provision for pregnant women

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section of this Code, any person who commits the offence of
murder shall be sentenced to death.
Provisions for juveniles
(2) Where an offender who in the opinion of the court had not attained the age of seventeen
years at the time the offence was committed, has been found guilty of murder, such offender shall not
be sentenced to death but shall be ordered to be detained during the pleasure of the President and
upon such an order being made the provisions of Part 44 of the Criminal Procedure Act shall apply.
[1966 No. 84. L.N. 112 of 1964.]
Provisions for pregnant women
(3) Where a woman who has been convicted of murder alleges she is pregnant or where the
judge before whom she is convicted considers it advisable to have inquiries made as to whether or not
she be pregnant, the procedure laid down in section 376 of the Criminal Procedure Act shall first be
complied with.
[Cap. C41.]

Section 320 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Attempt to murder

Any person who‐
(1) attempts unlawfully to kill another; or
(2) with intent unlawfully to kill another does any act, or omits to do any act which it is his duty
to do, such act or omission being of such a nature as to be likely to endanger human life,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 321 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Attempt to murder by convict

Any person who, being under sentence of penal servitude or of imprisonment for three years or more,
attempts to commit murder is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 322 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Accessory after the fact to murder

Any person who becomes an accessory after the fact to murder is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for life.

Section 323 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Written threats to murder

Any person who, knowing the contents thereof, directly or indirectly causes any person to receive any
writing threatening to kill any person is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 324 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Conspiring to murder

Any person who conspires with any other person to kill any person, whether such person is in Nigeria or
elsewhere, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 325 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Punishment of manslaughter

Any person who commits the offence of manslaughter, is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 326 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Aiding suicide

Any person who‐
(1 ) procures another to kill himself; or
(2) counsels another to kill himself and thereby induces him to do so; or
(3) aids another in killing himself;
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 327 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Attempting to commit suicide

Any person who attempts to kill himself is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one
year.

Section 327A of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Offence of infanticide

Where a woman by any wilful act or omission causes the death of her child being a child under the age
of twelve months, but at the time of the act or omission the balance of her mind was disturbed by
reason of her not having fully recovered from the effect of lactation consequent upon the birth of the
child, then notwithstanding that the circumstances were such that but for this section of this Code the
offence would have amounted to murder, she is guilty of a felony, to wit of infanticide, and may for such
offence be dealt with and punished as if she had been guilty of the offence of manslaughter of the child.

Section 328 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Killing unborn child

Any person who, when a woman is about to be delivered of a child, prevents the child from being born
alive by any act or omission of such a nature that, if the child had been born alive and had then died, he
would be deemed to have unlawfully killed the child, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment
for life.

Section 329 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Concealing the birth of children

Any person who, when a woman is delivered of a child, endeavours, by any secret disposition of the
dead body of the child, to conceal the birth, whether the child died before, at or after its birth, is guilty
of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 329A of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Unlawful possession of human head

(1) Any person who receives or has in his possession a human head or skull within six months of
the same having been separated from the body or skeleton with the intention that such head or skull
shall be possessed by himself as a trophy, juju or charm or transferred by him to any other person as a
trophy, juju or charm, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for five years.
(2) Where in any prosecution under this section of this Code it is proved that the person charged
received or had in his possession a human head or skull within six months of the same having been
separated from the body or skeleton, it shall be presumed that the person charged received or had in
his possession such head or skull with the intention specified in subsection (1) of this section, unless the
contrary is proved.
(3) A prosecution for an offence under this section of this Code shall not be instituted except by
or with the consent of a law officer.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 281-299 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 281-299 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 252 to 299 of the Nigerian Criminal Code is under Chapter 25 (Assaults and violence to the person generally; justification and excuse) of the Act.

Section 281 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Prevention of offences for which an offender may be arrested without warrant: prevention of
violence by persons of unsound mind

It is lawful for any person to use such force as is reasonably necessary in order to prevent the
commission of an offence which is such that the offender may be arrested without warrant; or in order
to prevent any act from being done as to which he believes, on reasonable grounds, that it would, if
done, amount to any such offence; or in order to prevent a person whom he believes, on reasonable
grounds, to be of unsound mind, from doing violence to any person or property.

Section 282 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Defence of dwelling‐house

It is lawful for any person who is in peaceable possession of a dwelling‐house, and for any person
lawfully assisting him or acting by his authority, to use such force as he believes, on reasonable grounds,
to be necessary in order to prevent the forcible breaking and entering of the dwelling‐house, either by
night or day, by any person whom he believes on reasonable grounds, to be attempting to break and
enter the dwelling‐house with intent to commit a felony or misdemeanor therein.

Section 283 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Provocation

The term “provocation”, used with reference to an offence of which an assault is an element, includes,
except as hereinafter stated, any wrongful act or insult of such nature as to be likely, when done to an
ordinary person, or in the presence of the ordinary person to another person who is under his
immediate care, or to whom he stands in a conjugal, parental, filial, or fraternal relation, or in the
relation of master or servant, to deprive him of the power of self‐control, and to induce him to assault
the person by whom the act or insult is done or offered.
When such an act or insult is done or offered by one person to another, or in the presence of another to
a person who is under the immediate care of that other, or to whom the latter stands in any such
relation as aforesaid, the former is said to give to the latter provocation for an assault.
A lawful act is not provocation to any person for an assault.
An act which a person does in consequence of excitement given by another person in order to induce
him to do the act, and thereby to furnish an excuse for committing an assault, is not provocation to that
person for an assault.
An arrest which is unlawful is not necessarily provocation for an assault, but it may be evidence of
provocation to a person who knows of the illegality.

Section 284 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Defence of provocation

A person is not criminally responsible for an assault committed upon a person who gives him
provocation for the assault, if he is in fact deprived by the provocation of the power of self‐control, and
acts upon it on the sudden and before there is time for his passion to cool; provided that the force used
is not disproportionate to the provocation, and is not intended, and is not such as is likely, to cause
death or grievous harm.
Whether any particular act or insult is such as to be likely to deprive an ordinary person of the power of
self‐control and to induce him to assault the person by whom the act or insult is done or offered, and
whether, in any particular case, the person provoked was actually deprived by the provocation of the
power of self‐control, and whether any force used is or is not disproportionate to the provocation, are
questions of fact.

Section 285 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Prevention of repetition of insult

It is lawful for any person to use such force as is reasonably necessary to prevent the repetition of an act
or insult of such a nature as to be provocation to him for an assault:
Provided that the force used is not intended and is not such as is likely, to cause death or grievous harm.

Section 286 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Self‐defence against unprovoked assault

When a person is unlawfully assaulted, and has not provoked the assault, it is lawful for him to use such
force to the assailant as is reasonably necessary to make effectual defence against the assault:
Provided that the force used is not intended, and is not such as is likely, to cause death or grievous
harm.
If the nature of the assault is such as to cause reasonable apprehension of death or grievous harm, and
the person using force by way of defence believes, on reasonable ground, that he cannot otherwise
preserve the person defended from death or grievous harm, it is lawful for him to use any such force to
the assailant as is necessary for defence, even though such force may cause death or grievous harm.

Section 287 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Self‐defence against provoked assault

When a person has unlawfully assaulted another or has provoked an assault from another, and that
other assaults him with such violence as to cause reasonable apprehension of death or grievous harm,
and to induce him to believe, on reasonable grounds, that it is necessary for his preservation from death
or grievous harm to use force in self‐defence, he is not criminally responsible for using any such force as
is reasonably necessary for such preservation, although such force may cause death or grievous harm.
This protection does not extend to a case in which the person using force, which causes death or
grievous harm, first began the assault with intent to kill or to do grievous harm to some person; nor to a
case in which the person using force which causes death or grievous harm endeavoured to kill or to do
grievous harm to some person before the necessity of so preserving himself arose; nor, in either case,
unless, before such necessity arose, the person using such force declined further conflict, and quitted it
or retreated from it as far as was practicable.

Section 288 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Aiding in self‐defence

In any case in which it is lawful for any person to use force in any degree for the purpose of defending
himself against an assault, it is lawful for any other person acting in good faith in his aid to use a like
degree of force for the purpose of defending such first‐mentioned person.

Section 289 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Defence of movable property against trespassers

It is lawful for any person who is in peaceable possession of any movable property, and for any person
acting by his authority, to use such force as is reasonably necessary in order to resist the taking of such
property by a trespasser, or in order to retake it from a trespasser, provided that he does not do harm
to the trespasser.

Section 290 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Defence of movable property with claim of right

When a person is in peaceable possession of any movable property under a claim of right, it is lawful for
him, and for any person acting by his authority, to use such force as is reasonably necessary in order to
defend his possession of the property, even against a person who is entitled by law to possession of the
property, provided that he does not do harm to such other person.

Section 291 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Defence of movable property without claim of right

When a person who is entitled by law to the possession of movable property, attempts to take from a
person who is in possession of the property, but who neither claims right to it, nor acts by the authority
of a person who claims right, and the person in possession resists him, it is lawful for the person so
entitled to possession to use force in order to obtain possession of the property, provided that he does
not do harm to the person in possession.

Section 292 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Defence of premises against trespassers: removal of disorderly persons

It is lawful for a person who is in peaceable possession of any land, structure, vessel or place, or who is
entitled to the control or management of any land, structure, vessel, or place, and for any person acting
by his authority, to use such force as is reasonably necessary in order to prevent any person from
wrongfully entering upon such land, structure, vessel, or place, or in order to remove therefrom a
person who wrongfully remains therein, provided that he does not do harm to such person.
It is lawful for a person who is in peaceable possession of any land, structure, vessel, or place, or who is
entitled to the control or management of any land, structure, vessel, or place, and for any person acting
by his authority, to use force in order to remove therefrom any person who conducts himself in a
disorderly manner therein, provided that he does not do him harm.
The term “place” includes any part of an enclosure or structure, whether separated from the rest of the
enclosure or structure, by a partition, fence, rope, or any other means, or not.

Section 293 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Defence of possession of real property or vessel with claim of right

When a person is in peaceable possession of any land, structure, or vessel, with a claim of right, it is
lawful for him, and for any person acting by his authority, to use such force as is reasonably necessary in
order to defend his possession, even against a person who is entitled by law to the possession of the
property provided that he does not do harm to such person.

Section 294 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Exercise of right of way or easement

When a person who claims to be lawfully entitled to enter upon land for the exercise of a right of way or
other easement or profit, enters upon the land for the purpose of exercising such right of way, or
easement or profit, after notice that his right to use such way or take such profit is disputed by the
person in possession of the land, or having entered persists in his entry after such notice, it is lawful for
the person in possession, and for any person acting by his authority, to use such force as is reasonably
necessary for the purpose of making the person so entering desist from the entry, provided that he does
not do him harm.

Section 295 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Correction of child, servant, etc.

A blow or other force, not in any case extending to a wound or grievous harm, may be justified for the
purpose of correction as follows‐
(1) a father or mother may correct his or her legitimate or illegitimate child, being under sixteen
years of age, or any guardian or person acting as a guardian, his ward, being under sixteen years of age,
for misconduct or disobedience to any lawful command;
(2) a master may correct his servant or apprentice, being under sixteen years of age, for
misconduct or default in his duty as such servant or apprentice;
(3) the master of a ship may correct any person on board his ship who is bound to perform any
manual labour, for misconduct or disobedience to any lawful command;
(4)a father or mother or guardian, or a person acting as a guardian, may delegate to any person
whom he or she entrusts permanently or temporarily with the governance or custody of his or her child
or ward on his or her own authority for correction, including the power to determine in what cases
correction ought to be inflicted; and such a delegation shall be presumed, except in so far as it may be
expressly withheld, in the case of a schoolmaster or a person acting as a schoolmaster, in respect of a
child or ward;
(5) a person who is authorised to inflict correction as in this section of this Code mentioned may,
in any particular case, delegate to any fit person the infliction of such correction; and
(6) no correction can be justified which is unreasonable in kind or in degree, regard being had to
the age and physical and mental condition of the person on whom it is inflicted; and no correction can
be justified in the case of a person who, by reasons of tender years or otherwise, is incapable of
understanding the purpose for which it is inflicted.

Section 296 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Use of force for preserving order on board a vessel

The master of a vessel, or any person acting by his order, may justify the use of any such force against
any person onboard the vessel as is necessary for suppressing any mutiny or disorder on board the
vessel, whether among officers, seamen, or passengers, whereby the safety of the vessel, or of any
person therein or about to enter or quitting the same, is likely to be endangered, or the master is
threatened to be subjected to the commands of the other person; and may kill any person who is guilty
of or abets such mutiny or disorder, if the safety of the vessel, or the preservation of any such person as
aforesaid, cannot be otherwise secured.

Section 297 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Surgical operations

A person is not criminally responsible for performing in good faith and with reasonable care and skill a
surgical operation upon any person for his benefit, or upon an unborn child for the preservation of the
mother’s life, if the performance of the operation is reasonable, having regard to the patient’s state at
the time and to all the circumstances of the case.

Section 298 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Excessive force

Any person authorised by law to use force is criminally responsible for any excess, according to the
nature and quality of the act which constitutes the excess.

Section 299 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Consent to death immaterial

Consent by a person to the causing of his own death does not affect the criminal responsibility of any
person by whom such death is caused.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 252-280 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 252-280 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 252 to 299 of the Nigerian Criminal Code is under Chapter 25 (Assaults and violence to the person generally; justification and excuse) of the Act.

Section 252 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Definition of assault

A person who strikes, touches, or moves, or otherwise applies force of any kind to the person of
another, either directly or indirectly, without his consent, or with his consent, if the consent is obtained
by fraud, or who by any bodily act or gesture attempts or threatens to apply force of any kind to the
person of another without his consent, in such circumstances that the person making the attempt or
threat has actually or apparently a present ability to effect his purpose, is said to assault that other
person, and the act is called an assault.
The term “applies force” includes the case of applying heat, light, electrical force, gas, odour, or any
other substance of thing whatever, if applied in such a degree as to cause injury or personal discomfort.

Section 253 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Assaults unlawful

An assault is unlawful and constitutes an offence unless it is authorised or justified or excused by law.
The application of force by one person to the person of another may be unlawful, although it is done
with the consent of that other person.

Section 254 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Execution of sentence

It is lawful for a person who is charged by law with the duty of executing or giving effect to the lawful
sentence of a court (including a customary and an area court) to execute or give effect to that sentence.

Section 255 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Execution of process

It is lawful for a person who is charged by law with the duty of executing the lawful process of a court
(including a customary and an area court) and who is required to arrest or detain another person under
such process, and for every person lawfully assisting a person so charged, to arrest or detain that other
person according to the terms of the process.

Section 256 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Execution of warrant

It is lawful for a person who is charged by law with the duty of executing a lawful warrant issued by any
court (including customary and an area court) or judicial officer, or other person having jurisdiction to
issue it, and who is required to arrest or detain another person under such warrant, and for every
person lawfully assisting a person so charged, to arrest or detain that other person according to the
directions of the warrant.

Section 257 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Erroneous sentence or process or warrant

If the sentence was passed, or the process was issued, by a court (including a native tribunal) having
jurisdiction under any circumstances to pass such a sentence or to issue such process, or if the warrant
was issued by a court (including a customary and an area court) or judicial officer or other person having
authority in any circumstances to issue such a warrant, it is immaterial whether the court or judicial
officer or person had or had not authority to pass the sentence or issue the process or warrant in the
particular case; unless the person executing the same knows that the sentence or process or warrant,
was in fact passed or issued without authority.

Section 258 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Sentence or process or warrant without jurisdiction

A person who executes or assists in executing any sentence, or process, or warrant which purports to be
passed or issued by a court (including a native tribunal), judicial officer, or other person, and who would
be justified, under the provisions of sections 254, 255, 256 and 257 of this Code, in executing the same if
it had been passed or issued by a court (including a customary and an area court), or judicial officer, or
person, having authority to pass or issue it, is not criminally responsible for any act done in such
execution notwithstanding that the court, judicial officer or person, had no authority to pass the
sentence or issue the process or warrant, if in such execution he acted in good faith and in the belief
that the sentence, process or warrant was that of a court, judicial officer, or other person, having such
authority.

Section 259 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Arrest of wrong person

A person who, being duly authorised to execute a warrant to arrest one person, arrests another person,
believing in good faith and on reasonable grounds that the person arrested is the person named in the
warrant, is not criminally responsible for doing so to any greater extent than if the person arrested had
been the person named in the warrant.
Any person who lawfully assists in making such an arrest believing that the person arrested is the person
named in the warrant, or who, being required by the warrant to receive and detain the person named in
it, receives and detains the person so arrested, is not criminally responsible for doing so to any greater
extent than if the person arrested had been the person named in the warrant.

Section 260 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Irregular process or warrant

When any process or warrant is bad in law by reason of some defect in substance or in form apparent
on the face of it, a person who, in good faith and believing that it is good in law, acts in the execution of
the process or warrant, is not criminally responsible for anything done in such execution to any greater
extent than if the process or warrant were good in law.

Section 261 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Force used in executing process or in arrest

It is lawful for a person who is engaged in the lawful execution of any sentence, process or warrant, or in
making any arrest, and for any person lawfully assisting him, to use such force as may be reasonably
necessary to overcome any force used in resisting such execution or arrest.

Section 262-270 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

(Repealed by No. 43 of 1945).

Section 271 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Peace officer preventing escape from arrest

When a peace officer or police officer is proceeding lawfully to arrest, with or without warrant, a person
for an offence which is a felony, and is such that the offender may be arrested without warrant, and the
person sought to be arrested takes to flight in order to avoid arrest, it is lawful for the peace officer or
police officer and for any person lawfully assisting him, to use such force as may be reasonably
necessary to prevent the escape of the person sought to be arrested, and, if the offence is such that the
offender may be punished with death or with imprisonment for seven years or more, may kill him if he
cannot by any means otherwise be arrested.

Section 272 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Other cases of preventing escape from arrest

When a person who is not a peace officer or police officer is proceeding lawfully to arrest, without
warrant, another person for an offence which is such that the offender may be arrested without
warrant, and when any person is proceeding lawfully to arrest another person for any cause other than
such an offence, and, in either case, the person sought to be arrested takes to flight in order to avoid
arrest, it is lawful for the person seeking to arrest him to use such force as may be reasonably necessary
to prevent his escape.

But this section of this Code does not authorise the use of force which is intended or is likely to cause
death or grievous harm.

Section 273 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Preventing escape or rescue after arrest

When any person has lawfully arrested another person for any offence, it is lawful for him to use such
force as he believes, on reasonable grounds, to be necessary to prevent the escape or rescue of the
person arrested.
But, if the offence is not one which is such that the offender may be arrested without warrant, this
section of this Code shall not authorise the use of force which is intended or is likely to cause death or
grievous harm.

Section 274 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

(Repealed by No. 43 of 1945).

Section 275 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Preventing a breach of the peace

It is lawful for any person who witnesses a breach of the peace to interfere to prevent the continuance
or renewal of it, and to use such force as is reasonably necessary for such prevention and is reasonably
proportioned to the danger to be apprehended from such continuance or renewal, and to detain any
person who is committing or who is about to join in or to renew the breach of the peace for such time as
may be reasonably necessary in order to give him into the custody of a peace officer or police officer.
It is lawful for a peace officer or police officer who witnesses a breach of the peace, and for any person
lawfully assisting him, to arrest any person whom he finds committing it, or whom he believes on
reasonable grounds to be about to join or renew the breach of the peace.
It is lawful for a peace officer or police officer to receive into custody and detain in custody any person
given into his charge as having been a party to a breach of the peace by a person whom the peace
officer or police officer believes, on reasonable grounds, to have witnessed the breach of the peace.

Section 276 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Suppression of riot

It is lawful for any person to use such force as is necessary to suppress a riot, and is reasonably
proportioned to the danger to be apprehended from its continuance.

Section 277 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Suppression of riot by peace officers

It is lawful for a peace officer to use or order to be used such force as he believes, on reasonable
grounds, to be necessary in order to suppress a riot, and is reasonably proportioned to the danger which
he believes, on reasonable grounds, is to be apprehended from its continuance.

Section 278 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Suppression of riot by person acting under lawful orders

It is lawful for any person acting in good faith in obedience to orders, not manifestly unlawful, given by a
peace officer for the suppression of a riot, to use such force as he believes, on reasonable grounds, to be
necessary for carrying such orders into effect. Whether any particular order so given is or is not
manifestly lawful, is a question of law.

Section 279 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Suppression of riot by person acting without order in case of emergency

When any person, whether subject to military law or not, believes, on reasonable grounds, that serious
mischief will arise from a riot before there is time to procure the intervention of a peace officer, it is
lawful for him to use such force as he believes, on reasonable grounds, to be necessary for the
suppression of the riot, and as is reasonably proportioned to the danger which he believes, on
reasonable grounds, is to be apprehended from its continuance.

Section 280 of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Riot: persons subject to Military Law or members of the Police Forces

It is lawful for a person who is bound by the laws in force relative to the Armed Forces of Nigeria or to
the Police Forces to obey the lawful commands of his superior officer, to obey any command given him
by his superior officer, in order to see the suppression of a riot, unless the command is manifestly
unlawful. Whether any particular command is or is not manifestly unlawful, is a question of law.
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 243-251 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 243-251 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 23 (Offences against Public Health)_ 243-248_ and Chapter 24 (Idle and disorderly persons; rogues and vagabonds; bringing contempt on uniform) _ 249-251_ of the Act.

Section 243 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Exposing for sale things unfit for food or drink

(1) Any person who sells, as food or drink, or has in his possession with intent to sell it as food or
drink, any article which has been rendered or has become noxious, or is in a state unfit for food or drink,
knowing or having reason to believe that the same is noxious as food or drink, or is in a state unfit for
food or drink, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year.
Adulteration of food or drink intended for sale
(2) Any person who adulterates any article of food or drink, so as to make such article noxious as
food or drink, intending to sell such article as food or drink or knowing it to be likely that the same will
be sold as food or drink, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year.

Section 244 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Dealing in diseased meat

Any person who‐
(1) knowingly takes into a slaughter‐house used for the slaughter of any animals intended for
the food of man the whole or any part of the carcass of any animal which has died of any disease; or
(2) knowingly sells the whole or part of the carcass of any animal which has died of any disease
or which was diseased when slaughtered,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 245 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Fouling water

Any person who corrupts or fouls the water of any spring, stream, well, tank, reservoir, or place, so as to
render it less fit for the purpose for which it is ordinarily used, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to
imprisonment for six months.

Section 246 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Burials in houses

Any person who without the consent of the President or the Governor buries or attempts to bury any
corpse in any house, building premises, yard, garden, compound, or within a hundred yards of any
dwelling‐house, or in any open space situated within a township, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable
to imprisonment for six months.
[L.N. 112 of 1964. 1967 No. 27.]

Section 247 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Noxious acts

Any person who‐
(a) vitiates the atmosphere in any place so as to make it noxious to the health of persons in
general dwelling or carrying on business in the neighbourhood or passing along a public
way; or
(b) does any act which is, and which he knows or has reason to believe to be, likely to
spread the infection of any disease dangerous to life, whether human or animal,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for six months.

Section 248 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Sale of matches made with white phosphorus: use of white phosphorus in manufacture of
matches

Any person who‐
(a) sells or has in his possession for the purposes of sale any matches made with white
(yellow) phosphorus; or
(b) uses white (yellow) phosphorus in the manufacture of matches,
is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of twenty naira, and any matches in respect of which the
offence shall have been committed shall be forfeited.

CHAPTER 24 – Idle and disorderly persons; rogues and vagabonds; bringing contempt on uniform

Section 249 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Idle and disorderly persons

The following persons‐
(a) every common prostitute‐
(i) behaving in a disorderly or indecent manner in any public place;
(ii) loitering and persistently importuning or soliciting persons for the purpose of
prostitution;
(b) every person wandering or placing himself in any public place to beg or gather alms, or
causing or procuring or encouraging any child or children so to do;
(c) every person playing at any game of chance for money or money’s worth in any public
place; and
(d) every person who, in any public place, conducts himself in a manner likely to cause a
breach of the peace,
shall be deemed idle and disorderly persons and may be arrested without warrant, and are guilty of a
simple offence and liable to imprisonment for one month.

Section 250 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Rogues and vagabonds

The following persons‐
(1) every person convicted of an offence under section 249 of this Code after having been
previously convicted as an idle and disorderly person;
(2) every person wandering abroad and endeavouring by the exposure of wounds or
deformation to obtain or gather alms;
(3) every person going about as a gatherer or collector of alms, or endeavouring to procure
charitable contributions of any nature or kind, under any false or fraudulent pretence;
(4) every suspected person or reputed thief who has no visible means of subsistence and cannot
give a good account of himself;
(5) every person who exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a
prostitute in such a manner as to show that he is aiding, abetting, or controlling, her prostitution with
any man, whether a particular man or not;
(6) every person found wandering in or upon or near any premises or in any road or highway or
any place adjacent thereto or in any public place at such time and under such circumstances as to lead
to the conclusion that such person is there for an illegal or disorderly purpose,
shall be deemed to be a rogue and vagabond and is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable on summary
conviction for the first offence to imprisonment for three months and for every subsequent offence to
imprisonment for one year.
An offender may be arrested without warrant.

Section 251 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Bringing contempt on uniform

Any person who, not being a person serving in any of the armed or police forces of Nigeria, wears the
uniform of any of these forces, or any dress having the appearance or bearing any of the regimental or
other distinctive marks of any such uniform, in such manner or in such circumstances as to be likely to
bring contempt on that uniform, or employs any other person so to wear such uniform or dress, is guilty
of a simple offence, and is liable to imprisonment for three months or to a fine of forty naira.
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 234-242 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 234-242 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 22 (Nuisances; gaming houses; lotteries; misconduct relating to corpses) of the Act.

Section 234 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Common nuisances

Any person who‐
(a) obstructs any highway, by any permanent work or erection thereon or injury thereto, which
renders the highway less commodious to the public than it would otherwise be; or
(b) prevents the public from having access to any part of a highway by an excessive and
unreasonable temporary use thereof, or by so dealing with the land in the immediate
neighbourhood of the highway as to prevent the public from using and enjoying it securely; or
(c) does not repair a highway which he is bound to repair; or
(d) does not repair a bridge which he is bound to repair; or
(e) wilfully diverts or obstructs the course of any navigable river so as to appreciably diminish its
convenience for purposes of navigation; or
(f) does any act not warranted by law, or omits to discharge any legal duty, which act or omission
obstructs or causes inconvenience or damage to the public in the exercise of rights common to
the public,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.
It is immaterial whether the act complained of is convenient to a larger number of the public than it
inconveniences, but the fact that the act complained of facilitates the lawful exercise of their rights by a
part of the public, may show that it is not a nuisance to any of the public.
The owner of a vessel wrecked in a navigable river is not guilty of a common nuisance because he does
not remove it.

Section 235 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

(Repealed by No. 20 of 1944).

Section 236 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Gaming houses

(1) A person being the owner or occupier, or having the use of, any house, room or place, who
shall open, keep or use the same for the purpose of unlawful gaming being carried on therein, and any
person who, being the owner or occupier of any house, room or place, shall knowingly and wilfully
permit the same to be opened, kept or used by any other person for the purpose aforesaid, and any
person having the care or management of or in any manner assisting in conducting the business of any
house, room or place opened, kept or used for the purpose aforesaid, is said to keep a common gaming
house.
Unlawful gaming
(2) In this section, “unlawful gaming” includes roulette, every game of dice except
backgammon, every game of card which is not a game of skill, the game known as chacha and other
games of cowries, and any game the chances of which are not alike favourable to all the players,
including the banker or other person or persons by whom the game is managed or against whom the
other players stake, play or bet.
(3) Any person who keeps a common gaming house is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to a
fine of one thousand naira or to imprisonment for two years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
(4) Any person other than the persons mentioned in subsection (1) of this section who is found
in a common gaming house shall be deemed, unless the contrary is proved, to be there for the purpose
of unlawful gaming and is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of ten naira for the first offence and for
each subsequent offence to a fine of forty naira or imprisonment for three months or to both such fine
and imprisonment.

Section 237 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Police may be authorised to enter gaming houses, etc.

(1) A superior police officer or an administrative officer in charge of police, if he has reasonable
grounds for believing that any house, room or place is kept as a common gaming house, may by order in
writing authorise any police officer to enter and search such house, room or place at any time and if
necessary, to use force for the purpose of effecting such entry, whether by breaking open doors or
otherwise, and to arrest all persons who shall be found therein, and to seize all instruments of gaming
found in such house or premises and to seize all money found therein.

Obstructing entry of police to be evidence of unlawful gaming

(2) Where a police officer so authorised to enter any house, room or place is wilfully prevented
from or obstructed or delayed in entering the same or any part thereof, or where any external or
internal door of, or means of access to, any such house, room or place shall be found to be fitted or
provided with any bolt, bar, chains or any means or contrivance for the purpose of preventing, delaying
or obstructing the entry into the same or any part thereof of any police officer authorised as aforesaid
or for giving an alarm in the case of such entry, or if any such house, room or place is found fitted or
provided with any means or contrivance for unlawful gaming or with any means of contrivance for
concealing, removing or destroying any instruments of gaming, it shall be evidence until the contrary be
proved, that such house, room or place is used as a common gaming house within the meaning of
section 236 of this Code and that the persons found therein were unlawfully playing therein.

Section 238 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Indemnity of witnesses

Any person who shall be called to give evidence against any other person charged under the provisions
of section 236 of this Code shall be freed from all criminal prosecution in respect of the offence with
which such other person is charged or any other offence under section 236 of this Code.

Section 239 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Betting houses

Any house, room, or place, which is used for any of the following purposes‐
(1) for the purpose of bets being made therein between persons resorting to the place and‐
(a) the owner, occupier, or keeper of the place, or any person using the place; or
(b) any person procured or employed by or acting for or on behalf of any such owner,
occupier, or keeper, or person using the place; or
(c) any person having the care or management, or in any manner conducting the business,
of the place; or
(2) for the purpose of any money or other property, being paid or received therein by or on
behalf of any such owner, occupier, or keeper, or person using the place as, or for the consideration‐
(a) for an assurance, undertaking, promise, or agreement, express or implied, to payor give
thereafter any money or other property on any event or contingency of or relating to
any horse race, or other race, fight, game sport, or exercise; or
(b) for securing the paying or giving by some other person of any money or other property
on any such event or contingency,
is called a common betting house.

Any person who, being the owner or occupier of any house, room, or place, knowingly and wilfully
permits it to be opened, kept, or used, as a common betting house by another person, or who has the
use or management, or assists in conducting the business of a common betting house, is guilty of a
misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year, and to a fine of one thousand naira:
Provided always that nothing herein contained shall make illegal the use of a totalisator by a race club
recognised by the Government, at a race meeting, with the approval in each case, of the superintendent
of police in charge of the area where the meeting is held. In this proviso “totalisator” means and
includes the instrument, machine, or contrivance, commonly known as the totalisator, and any other
instrument, machine, or contrivance of a like nature, or any scheme for enabling any number of persons
to make bets with one another on the like principles.

Section 239A of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Pool betting

(1) (Inserted by 44 of 1958 repealed by 1961 No. 69).
(2) (Inserted by 44 of 1958 repealed by 1961 No. 69).
(3) For the purpose of section 239 of this Code any house, room or place which is used for the
purpose of a licensed pool betting business shall not be deemed to be a common betting house by
reason only that it is so used.
[44 of 1958.1961 No. 69.]
(4) (Inserted by 44 of 1958 repealed by 1961 No. 69).

Section 239B of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

(Inserted by 44 of 1958 repealed by 1961 No. 69).

Section 240 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definitions: lottery: lottery ticket: public lottery

In this Chapter”
lottery” includes any game, method or device whereby money or money’s worth is distributed or
allotted in any manner depending upon or to be determined by chance or lot;
“lottery ticket” includes any paper, ticket, token or other article whatsoever, which either expressly or
tacitly entitles or purports to entitle any person to receive any money or money’s worth on the
happening of any event or contingency connected with any public lottery;
“public lottery” means a lottery to which the public or any class of the public has, or may have, access,
and every lottery shall, until the contrary is proved, be deemed to be a public lottery.

Section 240A of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Offences relating to lotteries

Any person who‐
(a) gives or sells or offers for sale or delivers any lottery ticket or pays or receives directly
or indirectly any money or money’s worth for or in respect of any chance in or event or
contingency connected with a public lottery; or
(b) draws, throws, declares or exhibits, expressly or otherwise, the winner or winning
number, ticket, lot, figure, design, symbol, or other result of any public lottery; or
(c) writes, prints, publishes, or causes to be written, printed, or published, any lottery
ticket, or any announcement relating to a public lottery; or
(d) advances, furnishes, or receives money for the purpose of a public lottery; or
(e) in any manner carries on, or assists in carrying on, or invites or solicits any person to
take part in, a public lottery,
is liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred naira or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding six
months.

Section 240B of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Recovery of money paid for lottery tickets

Any money or money’s worth paid or deposited for or in respect of the purchase of a lottery ticket shall
be recoverable as money had and received to the use of the person by whom the same was paid or
deposited.

Section 240C of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Contracting for sale of lottery ticket void

Every sale or contract for the sale of a lottery ticket is hereby declared to be void, and no action shall be
maintainable by any person in respect of any such sale or contract, except by the purchaser for the
return of the money or other consideration (if any) paid thereon.

Section 240D of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Saving of certain race club lotteries and sweepstakes

(1) Nothing in this Chapter contained shall apply to any lottery or sweepstake organised and
controlled by any race club in Nigeria to which a minister may by notice in the Federal Gazette extend
the provisions of this section of this Code, at or in connection with any race meeting held under the
auspices of any club or association.
[L.N. 257 of 1959.]
(2) Nothing in this Chapter contained shall apply to or prevent the sale by raffle or lottery of
articles exposed for sale at any bazaar or fancy fair held for raising funds in aid of any institution of a
public character, provided that permission for such sale shall have been given in writing by the Minister.

Section 240E of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Lotteries carried on in clubs with approval of Minister

(1) A Minister may grant to any club a licence authorising a lottery to be promoted and carried
on,
subject to any conditions contained in the licence, as an incident of entertainment by members of the
club on the premises of the club.
[L.N. 257 of 1959.]
(2) It shall be a condition of every licence granted to a club under subsection (1) of this section in
respect of a lottery that only members of the club and their guests introduced in accordance with the
rules of the club shall have access to the lottery.
(3) A lottery promoted and carried on in a club in accordance with the terms of a licence issued
under this section of this Code shall not be deemed to be a public lottery.
(4) When any condition of a licence granted under this section of this Code is contravened,
every person concerned in the promotion or carrying on of the lottery is guilty of an offence, unless he
proves that the contravention was committed without his knowledge, and liable on summary conviction
to a fine of forty naira or to imprisonment for four months.

Section 241 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Acting as keeper of brothels, gaming houses and betting houses

Any person who appears, acts, or behaves, as master or mistress, or as the person having the care or
management of any such premises, house, room, set of rooms, or place, as is mentioned in section
225B, 236 or 239 of this Code, is to be taken to be the keeper thereof, whether he is or is not the real
keeper.

Section 242 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Misconduct with regard to corpses

Any person who‐
(1) without lawful justification or excuse, the proof of which lies on him(
a) neglects to perform any duty imposed upon him by law, or undertaken by him, whether
for reward or otherwise, touching the burial or other disposition of a human body or
human remains; or
(b) improperly or indecently interferes with, or offers any indignity to, any dead human
body or human remains, whether buried or not;
(2) eats or receive for the purpose of eating any part of a dead human body,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.


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Section 233B-233F of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 233B-233F of the Nigerian Criminal Code

Section 233B, 233C, 233D, 233E, 233F of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 21A (Obscene Publications) of the Act.

Section 233B of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Interpretation

In this Chapter‐
[1961 No. 51.]
“article” means anything capable of being or likely to be looked at and read or looked at or read,
and includes any film or record of a picture or pictures, and any sound records;
“distribute” includes circulates, lends, sells, lets on hire or offers for sale or on hire;
“projects”, in relation to an article to be looked at or heard, includes shows or plays.

Section 233C of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Test of obscenity

(1) An article shall be deemed to be obscene for the purposes of this Chapter if its effect taken
as a whole is such as to tend to deprave and corrupt persons who are likely, having regard to all relevant
circumstances, to read, see or hear the matter contained or embodied in it.
[1961 No. 51.]
(2) The provisions of this section of this Code shall extend to any article of two or more distinct
items the effect of anyone of which is such as to tend to deprave and corrupt; but nothing in this section
shall apply to exhibitions in private houses to which the public are not admitted or to anything done in
the course of television or sound broadcasting.

Section 233D of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Prohibition of publication of obscene matter

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, any person who, whether for gain or not,
distributes or projects any article deemed to be obscene for the purposes of this Chapter, commits an
offence punishable on conviction by a fine not exceeding four hundred naira or by imprisonment for a
term not exceeding three years or by both.
[1961 No. 51.]
(2) A person shall not be convicted of an offence against this section of this Code if he proves
that he had not examined the article in respect of which he is charged and had no reasonable cause to
suspect that it was such that his publication of it would make him liable to be convicted of an offence
against this section of this Code.
(3) In any proceedings against a person under this section of this Code, the question whether an
article is obscene shall be determined without regard to any publication by another person unless it
could reasonably have been expected that the publication by the other person would follow from
publication by the person charged.
(4) No prosecution for an offence against this section of this Code shall be commenced more
than two years after the commission of the offence.

Section 233E of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Power of search and seizure

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, if a magistrate is satisfied by information on oath
that there is reasonable ground for suspecting that articles deemed to be obscene for the purposes of
this Chapter are, or are from time to time, kept for publication for gain in any premises or on any stall or
vehicle in the State, the magistrate may issue a warrant under his hand empowering any constable to
enter (if need be by force) and search the premises, or to search the stall or vehicle, within fourteen
days from the date of the warrant, and to seize and remove any articles found therein or thereon which
the constable has reason to believe to be obscene articles for the purposes of this Chapter and to be
kept for publication for gain.
[1961 No. 51.]
(2) A warrant under subsection (1) of this section shall, if any obscene articles are seized under
the warrant, also empower the seizure and removal of any documents found in the premises or, as the
case may be, on the stall or vehicle which relate to a trade or business carried on at the premises or
from the stall or vehicle.
(3) Articles seized under subsection (1) of this section may, be brought before the magistrate
who issued the warrant or before any other magistrate and the magistrate before whom the articles are
brought may thereupon issue a summons to the occupier of the premises, or as the case may be, the
user of the stall or vehicle, to appear on a day specified in the summons before a magistrate’s court, to
show cause why the articles or any of them should not be forfeited. If the court is satisfied, as respects
any of the articles, that at the time when they were seized they were obscene articles kept for
publication for gain, the court shall order those articles to be forfeited; but no order shall be made
under this subsection in default of appearance by the person summoned unless service of the summons
is proved.
(4) In addition to the person summoned, any other person being the owner, author or maker of
any of the articles brought before the court, or any other person through whose hand they had passed
before being seized, shall be entitled to appear before the court on the day specified in the summons to
show cause why they should not be forfeited.
(5) Where an order is made under this section of this Code for the forfeiture of any articles, any
person who appeared, or was entitled to appear, to show cause against the making of the order, may
appeal to the High Court; and no such order shall take effect until the expiration of fourteen days after
the day on which the order is made, or, if before the expiration thereof notice of appeal is duly given,
until the final determination or abandonment of the proceedings on the appeal.
(6) If, as respects any articles brought before it, the court does not order forfeiture, the court
may if it thinks fit, order the person on whose information the warrant for the seizure of the articles was
issued to pay such costs as the court thinks reasonable to any person who has appeared before the
court to show cause why those articles should not be forfeited; and costs ordered to be paid under this
subsection shall be enforceable as a civil debt.
(7) For the purposes of this section of this Code, the question whether an article is obscene shall
be determined on the assumption that copies of it would be published in any manner likely having
regard to the circumstances in which it was found, but in no other manner.
(8) Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude the making of any order for the
purposes of section 263 of the Criminal Procedure Act (which relates to disposal of property produced
before a court).
[Cap. C41.]

Section 233F of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Defence of public good

(1) No person shall be convicted of an offence against this Chapter, and no order for forfeiture
shall be made if it is proved that the publication of the article in question is justified as being for the
public good on the ground that it is in the interests of science, literature, art or learning, or of other
objects of general concern.
[1961 No. 51.]
(2) It is hereby declared that the opinion of experts as to the literary, artistic, scientific or other
merits of an article may be admitted in any proceedings under this Chapter either to establish or to
negative the said ground.


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Section 214-233 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 214-233 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 214-233 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 21 (Offences against Morality) of the Act.

Section 214 of the Nigerian Code Act

Unnatural offences

Any person who‐
(1) has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature; or
(2) has carnal knowledge of an animal; or
(3) permits a male person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 215 of the Nigerian Code Act

Attempt to commit unnatural offences

Any person who attempts to commit any of the offences defined in section 214 of this Code, is guilty of
a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 216 of the Nigerian Code Act

Indecent treatment of boys under fourteen

Any person who unlawfully and indecently deals with a boy under the age of fourteen years, is guilty of
a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
The term “deal with” includes doing any act which, if done without consent, would constitute an assault
as hereinafter defined.

Section 217 of the Nigerian Code Act

Indecent practices between males

Any male person who, whether in public or private, commits any act of gross indecency with another
male person, or procures another male person to commit any act of gross indecency with him, or
attempts to procure the commission of any such act by any male person with himself or with another
male person, whether in public or private, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three
years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 218 of the Nigerian Code Act

Defilement of girls under thirteen

Any person who has unlawful carnal knowledge of a girl under the age of thirteen years is guilty of a
felony and is liable to imprisonment for life, with or without caning.
[30 of 1960.]
Any person who attempts to have unlawful carnal knowledge of a girl under the age of thirteen years is
guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years, with or without caning.
A prosecution for either of the offences defined in this section of this Code shall be begun within two
months after the offence is committed.
A person cannot be convicted of either of the offences defined in this section of this Code upon the
uncorroborated testimony of one witness.

Section 219 of the Nigerian Code Act

Householder permitting defilement of young girls on his premises

Any person who, being the owner or occupier of any premises, or having, or acting, or assisting in the
management or control of any premises, induces or knowingly permits any girl of such age as is in this
section of this Code mentioned to resort to or be in or upon such premises for the purpose of being
unlawfully carnally known by any man, whether a particular man or not, is guilty of an offence.
If the girl is of or above thirteen and under sixteen years of age, he is guilty of a misdemeanour
and is liable to imprisonment for two years, with or without caning.
If the girl is under the age of thirteen years, he is guilty of felony, and is liable to imprisonment for life,
without caning.

Section 220 of the Nigerian Code Act

Defence to charge under preceding section

*It is a defence to a charge of any of the offences defined in section 219 of this Code to prove that the
accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the girl was of or above the age of sixteen years.

Section 221 of the Nigerian Code Act

Defilement of girls under sixteen and above thirteen, and of idiots

Any person who‐
(1) has or attempts to have unlawful carnal knowledge of a girl being of or above thirteen years
and under sixteen years of age; or
[1960 No. 30.]
(2) knowing a woman or girl to be an idiot or imbecile, has or attempts to have unlawful carnal
knowledge of her,
is guilty of a misdemeanour and is liable to imprisonment for two years, with or without caning.
*It is a defence to a charge of either of the offences firstly defined in this section of this Code to prove
that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the girl was of or above the age of
sixteen years.
A prosecution for any of the offences defined in this section of this Code shall be begun within two
months after the offence is committed.
A person cannot be convicted of any of the offences defined in this section of this Code upon the
uncorroborated testimony of one witness.

Section 222 of the Nigerian Code Act

Indecent treatment of girls under sixteen

Any person who unlawfully and indecently deals with a girl under the age of sixteen years is guilty of a
misdemeanour, and is liable to imprisonment for two years, with or without caning.
[20 of 1960.]
If the girl is under the age of thirteen years, he is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for
three years, with or without caning.
*It is a defence to a charge of the offence defined in this section to prove that the accused person
believed, on reasonable grounds, that the girl was of or above the age of sixteen years.
The term “deal with” includes doing any act which, if done without consent, would constitute an assault
as hereinafter defined.

Section 222A of the Nigerian Code Act

Causing or encouraging the seduction or prostitution of a girl under sixteen

(1) Whoever, having the custody, charge or care of a girl under the age of sixteen years, causes
or encourages the seduction, unlawful carnal knowledge or prostitution of, or the commission of an
indecent assault upon, such a girl, shall be liable to imprisonment for two years.
(2) For the purposes of this section, a person shall be deemed to have caused or encouraged the
seduction, unlawful carnal knowledge or prostitution of, or the commission of an indecent assault upon,
a girl who has been seduced, unlawfully carnally known, or indecently assaulted, or who has become a
prostitute, if he has knowingly allowed her to consort with, or to enter or continue in the employment
of, any prostitute or person of known immoral character.

Section 222B of the Nigerian Code Act

Allowing person under sixteen to be in brothels

(1) Whoever, having the custody, charge or care of a child or young person who has attained the
age of four years and is under the age of sixteen years, allows that child or young person to reside in or
frequent a brothel, is liable to a fine of one hundred naira or to imprisonment for six months or to both
such fine and imprisonment.
(2) If, upon the trial of a person charged with an offence against section 219 of this Code, the
facts proved in evidence authorise a conviction for an offence against this section of this Code, the
person charged may be convicted of the offence against this section of this Code although he was not
charged with that offence.

Section 222C of the Nigerian Code Act

Restriction on defence of reasonable belief

Notwithstanding anything contained in sections 220, 221 and 222, it shall only be a defence to a charge
of any of the offences defined in sections 219, 221 (1) and 222 of this Code to prove that the accused
person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the girl was of or above the age of sixteen years if the
accused person was under the age of 21 years at the time when the offence is alleged to have been
committed and has not previously been charged with any of such offences.

Section 223 of the Nigerian Code Act

Procuration

Any person who
(1) procures a girl or woman who is under the age of eighteen years to have unlawful carnal
connection with any other person or persons either in Nigeria or elsewhere; or
(2) procures a woman or girl to become a common prostitute either in Nigeria or elsewhere; or
(3) procures a woman or girl to leave Nigeria with intent that she may become an inmate of a
brothel elsewhere; or
(4) procures a woman or girl to leave her usual place of abode in Nigeria, with intent that she
may, for the purposes of prostitution, become an inmate of a brothel either in Nigeria or elsewhere,
is guilty of a misdemeanour and is liable to imprisonment for two years.
A person cannot be convicted of any of the offences defined in this section of this Code upon the
uncorroborated testimony of one witness.
The offender may be arrested without warrant.

Section 224 of the Nigerian Code Act

Procuring defilement of woman by threats or fraud, or administering drugs

Any person who‐
(1) by threats or intimidation of any kind procures a woman or girl, to have unlawful carnal
connection with a man either in Nigeria or elsewhere; or
(2) by any false pretence procures a woman or girl to have unlawful carnal connection with a
man either in Nigeria or elsewhere; or
(3) administers to a woman or girl, or causes a woman or girl, to take, any drug or other thing
with intent to stupefy or overpower her in order to enable any man, whether a particular man or not, to
have unlawful carnal knowledge of her,
is guilty of a misdemeanour and is liable to imprisonment for two years.
A person cannot be convicted of any of the offences defined m this section upon the uncorroborated
testimony of one witness.

Section 225 of the Nigerian Code Act

Abduction of girl under eighteen with intent to have carnal knowledge

Any person who, with intent that an unmarried girl under the age of eighteen years may be unlawfully
carnally known by any man, whether a particular man or not, takes her or causes her to be taken out of
the custody or protection of her father or mother, or other person having the lawful care or charge of
her, and against the will of such father or mother or other person, is guilty of a misdemeanour and is
liable to imprisonment for two years.
It is a defence to a charge of any of the offences defined in this section of this Code to prove that the
accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the girl was of or above the age of eighteen years.

Section 225A of the Nigerian Code Act

Persons trading in prostitution

(1) Every male person who‐
[30 of 1960.]
(a) knowingly lives wholly or in part on the earnings of prostitution; or
(b) in any public place persistently solicits or importunes for immoral purposes,
is liable to imprisonment for two years, and in the case of a second or subsequent conviction, shall, in
addition to any term of imprisonment awarded, be liable to caning.
(2) Any magistrate who is satisfied, by evidence upon oath, that there is reason to suspect that
any premises or any part of any premises are or is used by a female for purposes of prostitution, and
that any male person residing in or frequenting the premises is living wholly or in part of the earnings of
the prostitute, may issue a warrant under his hand authorising any constable to enter and search the
premises and to arrest that male person.
(3) Where a male person is proved to live with or to be habitually in the company of a prostitute
or is proved to have exercised control, direction, or influence over the movements of a prostitute in
such a manner as to show that he is aiding, abetting, or compelling her prostitution with any other
person or generally, he shall, unless he can satisfy the court to the contrary, be deemed to be knowingly
living on the earnings of prostitution.
(4) Every female who is proved to have, for the purposes of gain, exercised control, direction or
influence over the movements of a prostitute in such a manner as to show that she is aiding, abetting or
compelling her prostitution with any person or generally, is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 225B of the Nigerian Code Act

Keeping a brothel

Whoever‐
(a) keeps or manages or assists in the management of a brothel; or
(b) being the tenant, lessee, or occupier or person in charge of any premises, knowingly
permits such premises or any part thereof to be used as a brothel or for the purposes of
habitual prostitution; or
(c) being the lessor or landlord of any premises, or the agent of such lessor or landlord, lets
the same or any part thereof with the knowledge that such premises or some part
thereof are or is to be used as a brothel, or is wilfully a party to the continued use of
such premises or any part thereof as a brothel, is liable‐
(i) to a fine of one hundred naira or to imprisonment for six months; and
(ii) on a second or subsequent conviction, to a fine of three hundred naira or to
imprisonment for one year,
or in either case, to both such fine and imprisonment.

Section 226 of the Nigerian Code Act

Unlawful detention with intent to defile, or in a brothel

Any person who‐
(1) detains a woman or girl against her will in or upon any premises in order to her being
unlawfully carnally known by any man, whether a particular man or not; or
(2) detains a woman or girl against her will in a brothel,
is guilty of a misdemeanour and is liable to imprisonment for two years.
When a woman or girl is in or upon any premises in order to her being unlawfully carnally known by any
man, whether a particular man or not, or is in a brothel, a person is deemed to detain such woman or
girl in or upon such premises in order to her being so unlawfully carnally known or to detain her in such
brothel if, with intent to compel or induce her to remain in or upon the premises or in the brothel, he
withholds from her any wearing apparel or other property belonging to her, or if, after wearing apparel
has been lent or otherwise supplied to the woman or girl by or by the direction of such person or any
other person, he threatens the woman or girl with legal proceedings if she takes away with her the
wearing apparel so lent or supplied.
It is lawful for a woman or girl to take any such wearing apparel as may be necessary to enable her to
leave a brothel or any premises in or upon which she is in order to her being unlawfully carnally known
by any man.

Section 227 of the Nigerian Code Act

Conspiracy to defile

Any person who conspires with another to induce any woman or girl, by means of any false pretence or
other fraudulent means, to permit any man to have unlawful carnal knowledge of her, is guilty of a
felony, and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 228 of the Nigerian Code Act

Attempts to procure abortion

Any person who, with intent to procure miscarriage of a woman, whether she is or is not with child,
unlawfully administers to her or causes her to take any poison or other noxious thing, or uses any force
of any kind, or uses any other means whatever, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for
fourteen years.

Section 229 of the Nigerian Code Act

Attempt to procure own miscarriage

Any woman who, with intent to procure her own miscarriage, whether she is or is not with child,
unlawfully administers to herself any poison or other noxious thing, or uses any force of any kind, or
uses any other means whatever, or permits any such thing or means to be administered or used to her is
guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 230 of the Nigerian Code Act

Supplying drugs or instruments to procure abortion

Any person who unlawfully supplies to or procures for any person any thing whatever, knowing that it is
intended to be unlawfully used to procure the miscarriage of a woman, whether she is or is not with
child is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 231of the Nigerian Code Act

Indecent acts

Any person who‐
(1) wilfully and without lawful excuse does any indecent act in any public place; or
(2) wilfully does any indecent act in any place with intent to insult or offend any person,
is guilty of a misdemeanour and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 232 of the Nigerian Code Act

(Repealed by 1961 No. 51).

Section 233 of the Nigerian Code Act

Knowledge of age immaterial

Except as otherwise expressly stated, it is immaterial, in the case of any of the offences defined in this
Chapter committed with respect to a woman or girl under a specified age, that the accused person did
not know that the woman or girl was under that age or believed that she was not under that age.

Section 233A of the Nigerian Code Act

Deportation of non‐citizens of Nigeria

(1) Any person not being a citizen of Nigeria shall, upon conviction of an offence against section
219, 222A, 222B, 223, 225A, or 225B of this Code, be liable to be deported by order of the Minister, and
the provisions of the Immigration Act shall apply, mutatis mutandis, in the case of a deportation under
this section.
[L.N. 139 of 1965.1967 No. 27.1963 No.6. Cap. 11.]
(2) Where any person being a citizen of Nigeria is deported from any British possession to
Nigeria under the provisions of any law of such possession and for offences similar to the offences
contained in section 219, 222A, 222B, 223, 225A, or 225B of this Code, such person may, on arrival in
Nigeria, be kept temporarily in custody and returned under police escort to the place in Nigeria to which
such person belongs.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf