Nigerian Criminal Code Act (Preamble)

Nigerian Criminal Code Act

An Act to establish a code of criminal law.

[F & L. 1958. Cap. 42. 44 of 1958.25 of 1960.30 of 1960.49 of 1960. 1961 No. 51. 1961 No. 69. 1966 No. 1966 No. 84. 1967 No.2. 1969 No. 26. Cap. 85. 1971 No. 20. 1972 No.9. L.N. 148 of 1959. L.N. 257 of L.N. 258 of 1959. L.N. 22 of 1960. L.N. 15 of 1960. L.N. 112 of 1964. L.N. 139 of 1965.]

[1st June, 1916]

[Commencement.]

  1. Short title
    This Act may be cited as the Criminal Code Act.
    1A. Savings in respect of Northern States
    The provisions of this Act shall take effect subject to the provisions of the Penal Code (Northern States)
    Federal Provisions Act.
    [Cap. P3.]
  2. The Criminal Code and extent
    (1) The provisions contained in the Code of Criminal Law set forth in the Schedule to this Act,
    and hereinafter called “the Code”, shall, except to the extent specified in subsection (2) of this section,
    be State laws with respect to the several matters therein dealt with.
    [Schedule.]
    (2) The provisions contained in the Code which relate to any matter contained in the First
    Schedule to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, shall be the law of the Federal Republic
    of Nigeria with respect to the several matters therein dealt with.
    [Cap. C23. L.N. 112 of 1964. L.S.L.N. 16 of 1972. L.N. 155 of 1960.]
    (3) The Code may be cited as the Criminal Code.
    [L.N. 112 of 1964. Cap. C38. L.N. 47 of 1955.]
    (4) The provisions of Chapters 2, 4 and 5 of the Criminal Code shall apply in relation to any
    offence against any Order, Act, Law, or Statute and to all persons charged with any such offence.
  3. Construction of Acts, laws, rules, regulations, and other instruments
    The following rules shall, unless the context otherwise indicates, apply with respect to the construction
    of Acts, laws and other instruments[
    L.N. 112 of 1964.]
    (1) When in any Act, Law or other instrument, public or private, the term “felony” is used, or
    reference is made to an offence by the name of felony, it shall be taken that reference is intended to be
    an offence which is a felony under the provisions of the Code.
    (2) When in any Act, law or other instrument, public or private, the term “larceny” is used, it
    shall be taken that reference is intended to be the offence of stealing.
    (3) When in any Act, law or other instrument, public or private, reference is made to any offence
    by any specific name, it shall be taken that reference is intended to be the offence which, under the
    provisions of the Code, is constituted by the act or omission that would heretofore have constituted the
    offence referred to.
    (4) When in any Act, law or other instrument, public or private, reference is made to any of the
    provisions hereby repealed, it shall be taken that reference is intended to be the corresponding
    provisions or substituted provisions of the Code.
  4. Provisions of Code, exclusive with certain exceptions
    No person shall be liable to be tried or punished in any court in Nigeria for an offence except under the
    express provisions of the Code or of some Act or law which is in force in, or forms part of, the laws of
    Nigeria:
    Provided that, in the case of an offence committed before the commencement of this Act, the
    offender may be tried and punished either under the law in force when the offence was committed, or
    under the Code, provided that, the offender shall not be punished to any greater extent than was
    authorised by the former law.
  5. Civil remedies
    When by the Code any act is declared to be lawful, no action can be brought in respect thereof.
    Savings
    Except as aforesaid, the provisions of this Act shall not affect any right of action which any person would
    have had against another if this Act had not been passed; nor shall the omission from the Code of any
    penal provision in respect of any act or omission which, before the time of the coming into operation of
    the Code, constituted an actionable wrong, affect any right of action in respect thereof.
  6. Contempt of court
    Nothing in this Act or in the Code shall affect the authority of courts of record to punish a person
    summarily for the offence commonly known as contempt of court; but so that a person cannot be so
    punished and also punished under the provisions of the Code for the same act or omission.
  7. Printing of amendments
    Whenever any amendment is made in the Code, all copies thereof printed by the Federal Government
    Printer after the amendment shall be so printed as to set forth the actual provisions of the Code after
    omitting all repealed provisions or words, and embodying all newly enacted or substituted provisions or
    words.

Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 508-521 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 508-521 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 508 to 521 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 53 (Attempts, incitements, and preparations to commit offences – Neglect to prevent commission of felony), Chapter 54 (Conspiracy), and Chapter 55 (Accessories after the fact) of the code.

Chapter 53 (Attempts, incitements, and preparations to commit offences – Neglect to prevent commission of felony)

Section 508 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Attempts to commit offences

Any person who attempts to commit a felony or misdemeanor, is guilty of an offence which, unless
otherwise stated, is a misdemeanor.

Section 509 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Punishment of attempts to commit felonies

Any person who attempts to commit a felony of such a kind that a person convicted of it is liable to the
punishment of death or of imprisonment for a term of fourteen years or upwards, with or without other
punishment, is guilty of a felony and is liable, if no other punishment is provided, to imprisonment for
seven years.
Any person who attempts to commit a felony of any other kind is liable, if no other punishment is
provided, to a punishment equal to one half of the greatest punishment to which an offender convicted
of the felony which he attempted to commit is liable.

Section 510 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Punishment of attempts to commit misdemeanours

Any person who attempts to commit a misdemeanor is liable, if no other punishment is provided, to a
punishment equal to one half of the greatest punishment to which an offender convicted of the offence
which he attempted to commit is liable.

Section 511 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Punishment of attempts to commit simple offences

Any person who attempts to commit a simple offence is liable, if no other punishment is provided, to
one half of the greatest punishment to which an offender convicted of the offence which he attempted
to commit is liable.

Section 512 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Reduction of punishment

When a person is convicted of attempting to commit an offence, if it is proved that he desisted of his
own motion from the further prosecution of his intention, without its fulfilment being prevented by
circumstances independent of will, he is liable to one half only of the punishment of which he would
otherwise be liable. If that punishment is imprisonment for life, the greatest punishment to which he is
liable is imprisonment for seven years.

Section 513 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Attempts to procure commission of criminal acts

(1) Any person who attempts to procure another to do an act or make an omission of such a
nature that if he himself were to do the act or make the omission he would be guilty of an offence, is
himself to be deemed guilty of attempting to commit such offence and to be punishable accordingly.
(2) Any person who while in Nigeria attempts to procure another to do an act or make an
omission at a place not in Nigeria of such a nature‐
(a) that if he were himself to do the act or make the omission in Nigeria he would be guilty of an
offence; and
(b) that if he were himself to do the act or make the omission at the place where the act or
omission is proposed to be done or made, he would himself be guilty of an offence under
the laws in force at that place,
is guilty of an offence of the same kind and is liable to the same punishment as if he were himself to
attempt to do the same act or make the same omission in Nigeria.

Section 514 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Preparation to commit crimes with explosives, etc.

Any person who makes or knowingly has in his possession any explosive substance, or any dangerous or
noxious engine, instrument, or thing whatever, with intent by means thereof to commit, or for the
purpose of enabling any other person by means thereof to commit any felony, is guilty of a felony and is
liable to imprisonment for three years.

Section 515 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Neglect to prevent felony

Every person who, knowing that a person designs to commit or is committing a felony, fails to use all
reasonable means to prevent the commission or completion thereof, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is
liable to imprisonment for two years.

CHAPTER 54 – Conspiracy

Section 516 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Conspiracy to commit felony

Any person who conspires with another to commit any felony, or to do any act in any part of the world
which if done in Nigeria would be a felony, and which is an offence under the laws in force in the place
where it is proposed to be done, is guilty of a felony and is liable, if no other punishment is provided, to
imprisonment for seven years, or, if the greatest punishment to which a person convicted of the felony
in question is liable is less than imprisonment for seven years, then to such lesser punishment.

Section 516A of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Conspiracy to commit felony against law of a State

(1) Any person who while in a State conspires with another to do any act not in the State which
if done in the State would be a felony against the law of the State and which is an offence against the
law of the place where it is proposed to be done, is guilty of a felony and is liable, if no other
punishment is provided, to imprisonment for seven years, or, if the greatest punishment to which a
person convicted of the felony in question is liable is less than imprisonment for seven years, then to
such lesser punishment.
(2) In this section and section 517 A of this Code, “law of a State” has the meaning assigned to it
in section l0A of this Code.

Section 517 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Conspiracy to commit offence

Any person who conspires with another to commit any offence which is not a felony, or to do any act in
any part of the world, which if done in Nigeria would be an offence but not a felony, and which is an
offence under the laws in force in the place where it is proposed to be done, is guilty of a misdemeanor
and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 518 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Other conspiracies

Any person who conspires with another to effect any of the following purposes
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]
(1) to prevent or defeat the execution or enforcement of any Act, law, statute, or order; or
(2) to cause any injury to the person or reputation of any person, or to depreciate the value of
any property of any person; or
(3) to prevent or obstruct the free and lawful disposition of any property by the owner thereof
for its fair value; or
(4) to injure any person in his trade or profession; or
(5) to prevent or obstruct, by means of any act or acts which if done by an individual person
would constitute an offence on his part, the free and lawful exercise by any person of his trade,
profession, or occupation; or
(6) to effect any unlawful purpose; or
(7) to effect any lawful purpose by any unlawful means,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.
An offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 518A of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Conspiracy in trade dispute

(1) The provisions of sections 516, 517 and 518 of this Code shall not apply to an agreement or
combination of two or more persons to do or procure to be done any act in contemplation or
furtherance of a trade dispute if such act committed by one person would not be punishable as an
offence:
Provided that nothing in this section shall exempt from punishment any person guilty of a conspiracy for
which a punishment is provided by any other enactment:
And provided further that nothing in this section shall affect the law relating to riot, unlawful
assembly, breach of the peace, or sedition, or any offence against the State.
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]
(2) For the purposes of this section‐
“offence” does not include an offence punishable only by a fine; and “trade dispute” has the same
meaning as in the Trade Unions Act.

CHAPTER 55 – Accessories after the fact

Section 519 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Accessories after the fact to felonies

Any person who becomes an accessory after the fact to a felony is guilty of a felony and is liable, if no
other punishment is provided, to imprisonment for two years.

Section 520 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Accessories after the fact to misdemeanours

Any person who becomes an accessory after the fact to a misdemeanor, is guilty of a misdemeanor and
is liable to a punishment equal to one half of the greatest punishment to which the principal offender is
liable on conviction.

Section 521 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Accessories after the fact to simple offences

Any person who becomes an accessory after the fact to a simple offence, is guilty of a simple offence
and is liable to a punishment equal to one half of the greatest punishment to which the
principal offender is liable on conviction.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 490-507 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 490-507 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 490 to 507 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 47 (Fraudulent debtors), Chapter 48 (Offences in relation to copyright), Chapter 49 (Secret commissions and corrupt practices), Chapter 50 (Cruelty to animals), Chapter 51 (Miscellaneous offences in relation to ships and wharves) and Chapter 52 (Offences by members of a crew) of the code.

CHAPTER 47 -Fraudulent debtors

Section 490 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Fraudulent dealing with property by debtors

Any person who, with intent to defraud his creditors or any of them‐
(1) makes any gift, delivery, or transfer of his property, or any charge on his property; or
(2) conceals or removes any part of his property after or within two months before the date of
any unsatisfied judgment or order for payment of money obtained against him,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year.

CHAPTER 48 – Offences in relation to copyright

Section 491 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Making or dealing in infringing copies of copyright work

Any person who knowingly‐
(a) makes for sale or hire any infringing copy of a work in which copyright subsists; or
(b) sells or lets for hire, or by way of trade exposes or offers for sale or hire any infringing
copy of any such work; or
(c) distributes infringing copies of any such work either for the purposes of trade or to such
an extent as to affect prejudicially the owner of the copyright; or
(d) by way of trade exhibits in public any infringing copy of any such work,
is guilty of a simple offence and is liable to a fine not exceeding four naira for every copy dealt with in
contravention of this section of this Code, but not exceeding one hundred naira in respect of the same
transaction; or, on the case of a second or subsequent offence, either to such fine or to imprisonment
for two months.

Section 492 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Being in possession of plate for making infringing copies: giving unathorised performances of
copyright work

Any person who knowingly makes or has in his possession any plate for the purposes of making
infringing copies of any work in which copyright subsists, or knowingly and for his private profit causes
any such work to be performed in public without the consent of the owner of the copyright, is guilty of a
simple offence and is liable to a fine of one hundred naira, or, in the case of a second or subsequent
offence, either to such fine or to imprisonment for two months.

Section 493 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Forfeiture of copies or plates

The court before which any proceedings are taken for any offence under sections 491 and 492 of this
Code may, whether the alleged offender is convicted or not, order all copies of the work or all plates in
the possession of the alleged offender, which appear to it to be infringing copies or plates for the
purpose of making infringing copies, to be destroyed or delivered up to the owner of the copyright or
otherwise dealt with as the court may think fit.

CHAPTER 49 – Secret commissions and corrupt practices

Section 494 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Corrupt acceptance of gift

(1) Any person who‐
(a) being an agent, corruptly accepts or obtains or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain,
from any person, for himself or for any other person, any gift or consideration as an
inducement or reward for doing or for forbearing to do or for having after the
commencement of this Code done or forborne to do, any act in relation to his principal’s
affairs or business, or for showing or forbearing to show favour or do favour to any
person in relation to his principal’s affairs or business; or

Corrupt gift to agent
(b) corruptly gives or agrees to give or offers any gift or consideration to any agent as an
inducement or reward for doing or forbearing to do, or for having after the commencement of
this Code done or forborne to do, any act in relation to his principal’s affairs or business, or for
showing or forbearing to show favour or disfavour to any person in relation to his principal’s
affairs or business; or

Gift to agent of receipt, etc., with intent to mislead principal
(c) knowingly gives to any agent, or, being an agent, knowingly uses with intent to deceive his
principal, any receipt, account or other document in respect of which the principal is interested
and which contains any statement which is false or erroneous or defective in any material
particulars, and which, to his knowledge, is intended to mislead his principal,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years or to a fine of one thousand naira
or to both such imprisonment and fine.
(2) For the purposes of this section, the expression “consideration” includes valuable
consideration of any kind; the expression “agent” includes any person employed by or acting for
another; and the expression “principal” includes an employer.
(3) A person serving under the State or, in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, the government
of the State, as the case may be, or any local government council, is an agent within the meaning of this
section.
(4) A prosecution for an offence under this section of this Code shall not be instituted except by
or with the consent of a law officer.

CHAPTER 50 – Cruelty to animals

Section 495 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Offences of cruelty

(1) Any person who‐
(a) cruelly beats, kicks, ill‐treats, over‐rides, over ‐dri ves, over‐loads, tortures, infuriates, or terrifies
any animal, or causes or procures, or being the owner, permits any animal to be so used; or
(b) by wantonly or unreasonably doing or omitting to do any act, or causing or procuring the
commission or omission of any act, causes any unnecessary suffering, or being the owner,
permits any unnecessary suffering to be caused to any animal; or
(c) conveys or carries, or being the owner, permits to be conveyed or carried any animal in such
manner or position as to cause such animal unnecessary suffering; or

(d) wilfully without any reasonable cause or excuse administers, or causes or procures, or, being the
owner, permits such administration of, any poisonous or injurious drug or substances to any
animal, or wilfully without any reasonable cause or excuse causes any such substance to be
taken by any animal; or
(e) subjects, or causes or procures, or, being the owner, permits, to be subjected, any animal to any
operation which is performed without due care and humanity; or
(f) causes, or procures, or assists at the fighting or baiting of any animal, or keeps, uses, manages,
or acts or assists in the management of any premises or place for the purpose, or partly for the
purpose, of fighting or baiting any animal, or permits any place to be so kept, managed or used,
or receives or causes or procures any person to receive money for the admission of any person
to such premises or place,
is guilty of an offence of cruelty and is liable to imprisonment for six months or to a fine of fifty naira or
to both such imprisonment and fine.

(2) For the purposes of this section, an owner shall be deemed to have committed cruelty within
the meaning of this Chapter if he shall have failed to exercise reasonable care and supervision in respect
of the protection of the animal therefrom:
Provided that, when an owner is convicted of permitting cruelty within the meaning of this Chapter by
reason only of his having failed to exercise such care and supervision, he is not liable to imprisonment
without the option of a fine.
(3) Nothing in this Chapter shall apply‐
(a) to the commission or omission of any act in the course of the destruction, or the preparation
for destruction, of any animal as food for mankind, unless such destruction or such preparation was
accompanied by the infliction of unnecessary suffering; or
(b) to the coursing or hunting of any captive animal, unless such animal is liberated in an injured,
mutilated or exhausted condition; but a captive animal shall not, for the purpose of this section, be
deemed to be coursed or hunted before it is liberated for the purpose of being coursed or hunted, or
after it has been recaptured, or if it is under control.

Section 496 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Court may order destruction of animal

When the owner of any animal is convicted of an offence of cruelty under section 495 of this Code, it
shall be lawful for the court, if the court is satisfied that it would be cruel to keep the animal alive, to
direct that the animal be destroyed, and to assign the animal to a suitable person for that purpose. Any
reasonable expenses incurred in destroying the animal may be ordered by the court to be paid by the
owner, and thereupon shall be recoverable in like manner as a fine.

Section 497 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Court may deprive person of ownership

If the owner of any animal is guilty of cruelty within the meaning of this Chapter to any animal, the court
upon his conviction thereof, may if it thinks fit, in addition to any other punishment, deprive such
person of the ownership of the animal, and may make such order as to the disposal of the animal as it
may think fit:
Provided that no order shall be made under this section of this Code, unless it is shown by evidence as
to a previous conviction, or as to the character of the owner, or otherwise, that the animal, if left with
the owner, is likely to be exposed to further cruelty.

Section 498 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Power of police to take charge of animal or vehicle

When a person in charge of an animal or vehicle is arrested it shall be lawful for any police officer to
take charge of such animal or vehicle and to deposit the same in a place of safe custody until the
termination of the proceedings or until the court shall direct such animal or vehicle to be delivered to
the person charged or to the owner, and the reasonable costs of such detention, including the
reasonable costs of any veterinary treatment shall, in the event of a conviction in respect of the animal,
be paid by the owner, and such costs may be recovered in like manner as a fine.

Section 499 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definitions

In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires‐”animal” means any domestic or captive animal;
captive animal” means any animal (not being a domestic animal) of whatsoever kind or species,
including any bird, fish or reptile, which is in captivity, or confinement, or which is maimed, pinioned or
subjected to any appliance or contrivance for the purpose of hindering or preventing its escape from
captivity or confinement;
domestic animal” means any animal or bird which is tame or which has been or is being sufficiently
tamed to serve some purpose for the use of man.

CHAPTER 51 – Miscellaneous offences in relation to ships and wharves

Section 500 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Interpretation

In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires‐
“crew” includes masters, mates, pilots, engineers, stokers, deckhands and all persons engaged in the
navigation or service of the ship;
“Government” means the government of the Federation and includes a State government;
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]
“passenger steamer” means every steamship carrying one or more persons other than the crew, and
the owner, his family, friends and servants;
“ship” includes every description of vessel in the service of the Government and every passenger
steamer employed in local navigation on the inland and territorial waters of Nigeria.

Section 501 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Offences in relation to ships

(1) If any of the following offences is committed on any ship‐
(a) if any person being drunk or disorderly has been on that account refused admission thereto by
any duly authorised member of the crew and nevertheless persists in attempting to enter the
ship;
(b) if any person being drunk or disorderly on board the ship is requested by any duly authorised
member of the crew to leave the ship at any place at which he can conveniently do so, and does
not comply with the request;
(c) if any person on board the ship, after warning by any duly authorised member of the crew
molests or continues to molest any passenger;
(d) if any person shall obstruct, impede or molest the crew or any member of them in the
navigation or management of the ship;
(e) if any person, after having been refused admission to the ship by any duly authorised member
of the crew on account of the ship being full, persists in attempting to enter the ship;
(f) if any person having gone on board the ship at any place and being requested, on account of the
ship being full, by any duly authorised member of the crew to leave the ship, before it has
quitted that place, does not comply with that request;
(g) if any person travels or attempts to travel in the ship without first paying his fare and with
intent to avoid payment thereof;
(h) if any person having paid his fare for a certain distance, knowingly and wilfully proceeds in the
ship beyond that distance without first paying the additional fare for the additional distance,
with intent to avoid payment thereof;
(i) if any person on arriving in a ship at the point to which he has paid his fare knowingly and
wilfully refuses or neglects to quit the ship;
(f) if any person on board the ship fails when requested by any duly authorised member of the
crew either to pay his fare or exhibit such ticket or other receipt, if any, showing the payment of
his fare, as is usually given to persons travelling by and paying their fare on the ship;
(k) if any person travels or attempts to travel in that part of a ship which is set apart for passengers
of a superior class to that for which he holds a ticket;
(I) if any person travels or attempts to travel in any ship or part of a ship which is not set apart for
public passengers and on being ordered by any duly authorised member of the crew to leave
such place refuses so to do,
the person so offending shall for such offence be liable to a fine of ten naira but that liability shall not
prejudice the recovery of any fare payable by him.
(2) Any member of the crew in charge of any ship, and all persons called by him to his
assistance, may, without warrant, arrest any person who commits any offence against this section of
this Code and whose name and address are unknown to him.
(3) Any person who commits an offence against this section of this Code and on the application
of the officer or quartermaster in charge of the ship, refuses to give his name and address, or gives a
false name or address, is liable to a fine of forty naira.

Section 502 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Entering ship or wharf without ticket

(1) Any person who‐
(a) not being a passenger by a ship or not having purchased a ticket to travel by a ship, enters upon
any enclosed quay, wharf, or landing place, and on being ordered to leave such quay, wharf or
landing place by any servant of the Nigerian Ports Authority or person in charge of such quay,
wharf, or landing place or any police officer, refuses to do so; or
(b) not being a passenger by a ship or not having purchased a ticket to travel by a ship, attempts to
enter upon any enclosed quay, wharf or landing place, and on being ordered to desist by any
servant of the Nigerian Ports Authority or person in charge of such quay, wharf or landing place,
or any police officer, persists in so doing,
is guilty of a simple offence and is liable to a fine of four naira or in default to imprisonment for one
month.
(2) Any duly authorised member of the crew or any police officer and all persons called by him
to his assistance may, without warrant, arrest any person who commits any offence against this section
of this Code and whose name and address are unknown to him.

Section 503 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Power to exclude drunken person from ship

Any duly authorised member of the crew of any ship may refuse to receive on board thereof any person
who by reason of drunkenness or otherwise is in such a state, or misconducts himself in such a manner,
as to cause annoyance or injury to passengers on board, and if any such person is on board, may put him
on shore at any convenient place.

Section 504 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Jurisdiction

For the purpose of giving jurisdiction under this Chapter, every offence shall be deemed to have been
committed and every cause of complaint to have arisen either in the district in which the same actually
was committed or arose, or in any district in which the offender or person complained against is or may
be found.

CHAPTER 52 – Offences by members of a crew

Section 505 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Interpretation

In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires‐
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]
“Government” means the government of the Federation and includes a State government;
“ship” includes every description of vessel used in inland navigation or in the service of the Government,
but does not include‐
(a) ocean‐going ships not in the service of the Government; or

(b) vessels or canoes of local manufacture;
“voyage” means the period from the date of the entry of the starting of a ship in the ship’s log to the
date when the ships’ log is handed over to the employer or his agent and the voyage terminates.

Section 506 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Obligation to complete voyage

A person serving in the crew of a ship shall complete any voyage the ship may be engaged in making
when the period of his engagement expires:
Provided that the person serving after the term of his agreement has expired, shall be paid up to the
date of the termination of the voyage, at the rate stipulated for under the terms of the agreement
under which he is serving.

Section 507 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Offences by members of a crew

(1) Any person who-
a) having entered into an agreement to serve in the crew of any ship fails to enter upon
his employment; or
(b) being a member of the crew of any ship‐
(i) deserts or without leave or lawful cause absents himself from duty;
(ii) is intoxicated during working hours;
(iii) refuses without reasonable excuse therefor to obey the order of any person in
authority over him;
(iv) uses abusive or insulting language to any person in authority over him;
(iv) wilfully does any act tending to the loss of or damage or serious risk to his employer’s
property;
(vi) refuses or omits without reasonable cause to do any act proper and requisite to
be done by him for preserving his employer’s property,
is guilty of a simple offence and is liable to a fine of ten naira.
(2) Any person serving in the crew of any ship who combines with any of the crew to disobey
lawful commands, or to neglect duty, or to impede the navigation of the ship or the progress of the
voyage, shall be liable to imprisonment for three months.
(3) The offender may be tried in any place where he is or to which he may be brought.
(4) A master or person in charge of an ocean‐going ship may inquire into any offence under this
section of this Code, and may impose upon the offender a fine not exceeding ten naira to be levied by
stoppage from the offender’s wages.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 480-489 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 480-489 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 45 (Preparation for forgery) and Chapter 46 (Personation) of the Code.

CHAPTER 45 – Preparation for forgery

Chapter 480 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Instruments and materials for forgery

Any person who, without lawful authority or excuse, the proof of which lies on him
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]
(1) makes, or begins or prepares to make, or uses, or knowingly has in his possession or disposes of,
any paper resembling any paper such as is specially provided by the proper authority for the
purpose of being used for making any of the following things‐
(a) any document acknowledging or being evidence of the indebtedness of the Government of
Nigeria or of any part of Nigeria or of the government of any Commonwealth country or any
country under the protection of a Commonwealth country, or of any foreign prince or State, or
of any person carrying on the business of banking, to any person; or
(b) any stamp, licence, permit, or other document, used for the purposes of the public revenue of
Nigeria or of any part of Nigeria or of any part of a Commonwealth country or any country under
the protection of a Commonwealth country; or
(c) any bank note,
or any machinery or instrument or material for making such paper, or capable of producing in or
on paper any words, figures, letters, marks, or lines, resembling any words, figures, letters,
marks or lines used in or on paper specially provided for any such purpose; or
(2) impresses or makes upon any plate or material any words, figures, letters, marks, or lines, the
print whereof resembles, in whole or part, the words, figures, letters, marks, or lines used in any
such document as aforesaid; or
(3) uses or knowingly has in his possession or disposes of, any plate or material upon which any
such words, figures, letters, marks or lines, are impressed or made; or
(4) uses, or knowingly has in his possession or disposes of, any paper on which is written or
printed the whole or any part of the usual contents of any such documents as aforesaid,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years, and any such paper, document,
bank note, or any machinery or instrument or material for making or capable of producing such paper,
document or bank note which are found in his possession shall be forfeited to the State by order of the
court before which he is tried or if there is no trial, by order of the court before which the offence is
inquired into.

Chapter 480A of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Unlawful inquires relating to the possibility of forgery

(1) Any person who, without lawful authority or excuse, the proof of which lies on him, either orally or
in writing makes inquiries of any other person, whether in Nigeria or at any place not in Nigeria‐
(a) as to the cost of obtaining or the cost of supplying or as to obtaining or supplying any
machinery or instrument or material for the making of any paper or capable of producing in or
on any paper any words, figures, letters, marks or lines resembling any words, figures, letters,
marks or lines used in or on paper specially provided for any purpose mentioned in paragraph
(1) of section 480 of this Code; or
(b) as to the cost of printing or otherwise reproducing or as to printing or otherwise reproducing
any document referred to in subsection (1) of section 480 of this Code; no matter by what name
such document may be referred to; or
(c) as to whether such other person or any other person is prepared to print or otherwise
reproduce or would be prepared to print or otherwise reproduce any such document as
aforesaid; or
(d) as to whether such other person or any other person is prepared to obtain or would be
prepared to obtain any such document as aforesaid by any means other than paying full value
for the same,
is guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for one year.
(2) In the case of written inquiries in connection with any of the matters or subjects to which subsection
(1) of this section relates, the fact that such inquiries were reduced into writing shall be sufficient proof
of an attempt to commit the offence and the offender shall be subject to a like penalty as if he had
committed the offence.

Chapter 481 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Counterfeit stamps

Any person who, without authority or excuse, the proof of which lies on him
[L.N. 112 of 1964 ]
(1) makes or mends, or begins or prepares to make or mend, or uses, or knowingly
has in his possession or disposes of, any die, plate, or instrument, capable of making an
impression resembling that made by any die, plate or instrument used for the purpose
of making any stamp, whether impressed or adhesive, which is used for the purposes of
the public revenue of the Nigerian Postal Service in Nigeria or in any other country, or
capable of producing in or on paper any words, figures, letters, marks, or lines,
resembling any words, figures, letters, marks, or lines used in or on any paper specially
provided by the proper authority for any such purpose; or
(2) knowingly has in his possession or disposes of any paper or other material which has on
it the impression of any such die, plate, or instrument, or any paper which has on it any
such words, figures, letters, marks, or lines, as aforesaid; or
(3) fraudulently, and with intent that use may be made of any such stamp as aforesaid, or
of any part of it, removes the stamp from any material in any way whatever; or
(4) fraudulently, and with intent that use may be made of any part of such stamp, mutilates
the stamp; or
(5) fraudulently fixes or places upon any material or upon any such stamp, any stamp or
part of a stamp which has been in any way removed from any other material, or out of or
from any other stamp; or
(6) fraudulently, and with intent that use may be made of any such stamp which has been already
impressed upon or attached to any material, erases or otherwise removes, either really or apparently,
from such material anything whatever written on it; or
(7) knowingly has in his possession or disposes of anything obtained or prepared by any such unlawful
act as aforesaid,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Chapter 482 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Paper for postal purposes

Any person who, without lawful authority or excuse, the proof of which lies on him, knowingly has in his
possession or disposes of any paper which has been specially provided by the proper authority for the
purpose of being used for postage stamps, money orders, or postal orders, before such paper has been
lawfully issued for public use, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Chapter 483 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Paper and dies for postage stamps

Any person who, without lawful authority or excuse, the proof of which lies on him‐
(1) makes, or begins or prepares to make, or uses for any postal purpose, or has in his
possession, or disposes of any imitation or representation on paper or any other material, of any stamp
used for denoting any rate of postage of Nigeria, or of any other country; or
(2) makes or mends, or begins or prepares to make or mend, or uses, or has in his possession or
disposes of, any die, plate, instrument, or material, for making any such imitation or representation,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year or to a fine of one hundred naira
and any stamps, and any other such things as aforesaid, which are found in his possession, are forfeited
to the State.
For the purposes of this section of this Code, a stamp purporting to denote a rate of postage of any
country is to be taken to be a stamp used for postal purposes in that country, until the contrary is
shown.

CHAPTER 46 – Impersonation

Chapter 484 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Impersonation in general

Any person who, with intent to defraud any person, falsely represents himself to be some other person,
living or dead, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
If the representation is that the offender is a person entitled by will or operation of law to any specific
property and he commits the offence to obtain such property or possession thereof, he is liable to
imprisonment for fourteen years.

Chapter 485 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Falsely acknowledging deeds, recognisances, etc.

Any person who, without lawful authority or excuse, the proof of which lies on him, makes, in the name
of any other person, before any court or person lawfully authorised to take such an acknowledgment, an
acknowledgment of liability of any kind, or an acknowledgment of deed or other instrument, is guilty of
a felony and liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Chapter 486 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Impersonation of a person named in a certificate

Any person who alters any document which has been issued by lawful authority to another person, and
whereby that other person is certified to be a person possessed of any qualification recognised by law
for any purpose, or to be the holder of any office, or to be entitled to exercise any profession, trade, or
business, or to be entitled to any right or privilege, or to enjoy any rank or status, and falsely represents
himself to be the person named in the document, is guilty of an offence of the same kind and is liable to
the same punishment as if he had forged the document.

Chapter 487 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Lending, etc., certificate for impersonation

Any person who, being a person to whom any document has been issued by lawful authority whereby
he is certified to be a person possessed of any qualification recognised by law for any
purpose, or to be the holder of any office, or to be entitled to exercise any profession, trade, or
business, or to be entitled to any right or privilege, or to enjoy any rank or status, sells, gives or lends the
document to another person with intent that that other person may represent himself to be the person
named therein, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Chapter 488 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Impersonation of person named in a testimonial or character

Any person who, with the purpose of obtaining any employment, alters any document of the nature of a
testimonial or character given to another person, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to
imprisonment for one year.

Chapter 489 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Lending, etc., testimonial for impersonation

Any person who, being a person to whom any such document as is mentioned in section 488 of this
Code has been given, gives, sells or lends such document to another person with the intent that that
other person may alter such document for the purpose of obtaining any employment, is guilty of a
misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for three years.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 463-479 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 463-479 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 463 to 479 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 43 (Forgery in general) and Chapter 44 (Punishment of forgery and like offences) of the code.

CHAPTER 43 – Forgery in general: definitions

Section 463 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definitions

In this Division of this part of this Code unless the context otherwise requires
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]
“bank note” includes any negotiable instrument issued by or on behalf of any person or
corporation in any part of the world, or issued by the authority of any State, province, or government,
and intended to be used as equivalent to money, either immediately on issue or at any time afterwards:
it also includes a bank bill or bank post bill, currency note or any note (by whatever name called) which
is legal tender in the country in which it is issued;
document” includes a register or register‐book, or part of either, and any book, and any paper,
parchment, or other material whatever, used for writing or printing, which is marked with any letters or
marks denoting words, or with any other signs capable of conveying a definite meaning to persons
conversant with them; but does not include trade marks on articles of commerce;
seal” includes any stamp, die, or other thing, of whatever material, from which an impression
can be taken by means of pressure, or of ink, or by any other means;
writing” includes an inscription on wood, stone, metal, or other material; it also includes a
mere signature and a mark of any kind.

Section 464 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Further definitions

A document or writing is said to be false‐
(a) in the case of a document which is a register or record kept by lawful authority, or any entry in
any such register, or which purports to be issued by lawful authority as testifying to the contents
of any register or record kept by lawful authority, or as testifying to any facts or event, if any
material particular stated in the document is untrue; or
(b) if the whole or some material part of the document or writing purports to be made by or on
behalf of some person who did not make it or authorise it to be made, or if, in a case where the
time or place of making is material, although the contents or writing is made by or by the
authority of the person by whom it purports to be made, it is with a fraudulent intent falsely dated as to
the time or place of making; or
(c) if the whole or some material part of the document or writing purports to be made by or on
behalf of some person who does not in fact, exist; or
(d) if the document or writing is made in the name of an existing person, either by that person
himself or by his authority, with the fraudulent intention that it should pass as being made by
some person, real or fictitious, other than the person who makes it or authorises it to be made.
A seal or mark is said to be counterfeit if it is made without lawful authority, and is in such form as to
resemble a genuine seal or mark, or, in the case of a seal, in such a form as to be capable of producing
impressions resembling those produced by a genuine seal.
A representation of the impression of a seal is said to be counterfeit if it is not in fact made by the seal.
The term “resemble“, applied to anything, includes the case where the thing is made to resemble, or is
apparently intended to resemble, the object spoken of.

Section 465 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definition of forgery

A person who makes a false document or writing knowing it to be false, and with intent that it may in
any way be used or acted upon as genuine, whether in the State or elsewhere, to the prejudice of any
person, or with intent that any person may, in the belief that it is genuine, be induced to do or refrain
from doing any act, whether in the State or elsewhere, is said to forge the document or writing.
A person who makes a counterfeit seal or mark, or makes an impression of a counterfeit seal knowing
the seal to be counterfeit, or makes a counterfeit representation of the impression of a genuine seal, or
makes without lawful authority an impression of a genuine seal, with intent in either case that the thing
so made may in any way be used or acted upon as genuine, whether in the State or elsewhere, to the
prejudice of any person, or with intent that any person may, in the belief that it is genuine, be induced
to do or refrain from doing any act, whether in the State or elsewhere, is said to forge the seal or mark.
The term “make a false document or writing” includes altering a genuine document or writing in any
material part, either by erasure, obliteration, removal, or otherwise; and making any material addition
to the body of a genuine document or writing; and adding to a genuine document or writing any false
date, attestation, seal or other material matter.
It is immaterial in what language a forged document or writing is expressed.
It is immaterial that the forger of anything forged may not have intended that any particular person
should use or act upon it, or that any particular person should be prejudiced by it, or be induced to do or
refrain from doing any act.
It is immaterial that the thing forged is incomplete or does not purport to be a document,
writing, or seal, which would be binding in law for any particular purpose, if it is so made, and is of such
a kind, as to indicate that it was intended to be used or acted upon.

Section 466 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Certain matters immaterial

In the case of an offence which involves the forging or uttering of a document or writing relating to the
payment of money, or to the delivery or transfer of any property, or to the creation or performance of
any obligation, it is immaterial in what country the money or property is, or purports to be, payable,
deliverable, or transferable, or the obligation is or purports to be, an obligation to be performed; and, if
the money or the property purports to be payable, deliverable or transferable or the obligation purports
to be an obligation to be performed in some country out of Nigeria, it is immaterial whether the
document or writing is under seal or not.

Section 467 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

CHAPTER 44 – Punishment of forgery and like offences

Any person who forges any document, writing, or seal, is guilty of an offence which, unless otherwise
stated, is a felony, and he is liable, if no other punishment is provided, to imprisonment for three years.

Punishment in special cases

Public seals, etc.
(1) If the thing forged‐
[L.N. 112 of 1964, 1976 No. 27.]
(a) purports to be, or is intended by the offender to be understood to be, or to be used as, the
public seal of Nigeria or of any State of Nigeria or the great or privy seal of any country of the
Commonwealth or under the protection of a Commonwealth country, or the seal of the
President, or a Governor of a State; or
(b) is a document having on it or affixed to it any such seal, signet, or sign manual, or anything
which purports to be, or is intended by the offender to be understood to be, any such seal,
signet, or sign manual,
the offender is liable to imprisonment for life.

Securities, titles, register, etc.
(2) If the thing forged purports to be, or is intended by the offender to be understood to be or to
be used as, any of the following things‐
(a) a document which is evidence of title to any portion of the public debt of Nigeria or of any State
thereof or of any other country, or to any dividend or interest payable in respect of any such
debt, or a transfer or assignment of any such document, or a receipt or certificate for any
interest or money payable or accruing on or in respect of any such public debt;
(b) a transfer or assignment of a share in any corporation, company, or society, whether domestic
or foreign, or of any share or interest in the capital stock of any such corporation, company, or
society, or in the debt of any such corporation, company or society, or a receipt or certificate for
any interest or money payable or accruing on or in respect of any such share, interest, or debt;
(c) a document acknowledging or being evidence of the indebtedness of the Government of Nigeria
or of the government of any other country;
(d) a document which by the law of Nigeria, or any other country is evidence of the title to any land
or estate in land in Nigeria or that other country, or an entry in any register or book which is
such evidence;
(e) a document which by law is required for procuring the registration of any title to any land or
estate in land;
(f) a testamentary instrument, whether the testator is living or dead, or a probate or letters of
administration, whether with or without a will annexed;
(g a bank note, bill of exchange, or promissory note, or an acceptance, endorsement, or
assignment, of either;
(h) a deed, bond, or writing obligatory, or a draft, warrant, order, or other security for the payment
of money, or for the delivery or transfer of a valuable security, or for procuring or giving credit,
whether negotiable or not, or an endorsement or assignment of any such document;
(i) an accountable receipt, or an acknowledgement of the deposit, receipt, payment or delivery, of
money or goods, or of any valuable security, or an endorsement or assignment of any such
document;
(j) a bill of lading, dock warrant, warehouse keeper’s certificate, warrant, or order for the delivery
of goods, or any other document used in the ordinary course of business as proof of possession
or control of goods, or as authorising, or purporting to authorise, either by endorsement or by
delivery, the possessor of the document to transfer or receive the goods represented by the
document, or an endorsement or assignment of any such document;
(k) a charter party, or a shipping document accompanying a bill of lading, or an endorsement or
assignment of either;
(I) a policy of insurance of any kind;
(m) a power of attorney or other authority to execute any such document as is mentioned in this
section of this Code;
(n) the signature of a witness to any of the documents mentioned in this section to which
attestation is by law required;
(o) a register of births, baptisms, marriages, deaths, or burials, authorised or required by law to be
kept, or any entry in any such register;
(p) a copy of any such register or entry as last aforesaid, which is authorised or required by law to
be given or sent to or by any person;
(q) a seal by a registrar appointed to keep any such register as is hereinbefore mentioned, or the
impression of any such seal, or the signature of any such registrar,
the offender is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Documents relating to revenue and acts of States, etc.
(3) If the thing forged purports to be, or is intended by the offender to be understood to be or to
be used as, any of the following things‐
[L.N. 112 of 1964. 1967 No. 27.]
(a) the signature of the President or a Governor of a State or of a Minister, or a
commissioner, as the case may be, upon any grant, commission, warrant, or order;
(b) a seal or stamp used for the purpose of the public revenue in Nigeria or in any other
country;
(c) a document relating to the obtaining or receiving of any money payable on account of the
public service of Nigeria, or any other property of the State in any country, or a power of attorney or
other authority to execute any such document,
the offender is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Courts seals, records, process, evidence, etc.
(4) If the thing forged purports to be, or is intended by the offender to be, understood to be or
to be used as, any of the following things‐
[L. N. 112 of 1964.]
(a) the seal of a court of record in any part of a country of the Commonwealth or of a country under
the protection of a Commonwealth country, or a seal used at the chambers of a Justice of the
Supreme Court or a Judge of a High Court for stamping or sealing summonses or orders;
(b) a seal or signature by virtue whereof any document can by law be used as evidence;
(c) any process of any court of justice in any part of a country of the Commonwealth or of a country
under the protection of a Commonwealth country;
(d) a document issued or made by or out of or by the authority of any such court as last aforesaid;
(e) a document or copy of a document of any kind, which document or copy is intended by the
offender to be used as evidence in any such court as last aforesaid;
(f) a record or other document of or belonging to a court of record in any part of a country of the
Commonwealth or of a country under the protection of a Commonwealth country;
(g) a copy or certificate of any record of any such court as last aforesaid;
(h) an instrument, whether written or printed, partly written and partly printed, which is made
evidence by any Act, law, statute, or order, in force in Nigeria;
(i) a document which a judicial officer is required or authorised by law to make, attest, or issue,
and purporting to be made, attested, or issued by a judicial officer;
(f) a stamp used for denoting the payment of fees or percentages in any court;
(k) a licence or certificate required or authorised by law to be given for the celebration of a
marriage;
(I) a consent to the marriage of a minor given by a person authorised by law to give it;
(m) a certificate of marriage given under the provisions of the laws relating to the solemnisation
of marriage;
(n) a copy of the registration of a marriage;
(o) a stamp issued or made under the laws relating to the post office;
(p) a power of attorney or a letter of attorney;
(q) the signature of a witness to a power of attorney or letter of attorney;
(r) the superscription of any postal matter by any person empowered under any enactment to
frank postal matter;
(s) a contract or a writing which with other writings constitutes a contract or is evidence of a
contract;
(t) an authority or request for the payment of money or for the delivery of property;
(u) an acquaintance or discharge or a voucher of having received any property, or any document
which is evidence of the receipt of any property;
(v) any mark which under the authority of any Act, law, statute, or order, is impressed upon or
otherwise attached to or connected with any article for the purpose of denoting the quality of the
article or the fact that it has been examined or approved by or under the authority of some public body
or public officer,
the offender is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Telegrams
(5) If the thing forged purports to be, or is intended by the offender to be understood to be or to
be used as, a message to be sent by telegraph, or a message received by telegraph, the offender is liable
to the same punishment as if he had forged a document to the same effect as the message.

Section 468 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Uttering false documents and counterfeit seals

Any person who knowingly and fraudulently utters a false document or writing, or a counterfeit seal, is
guilty of an offence of the same kind and is liable to the same punishment as if he had forged the thing
in question.
It is immaterial whether the false document or writing, or counterfeit seal, was made in Nigeria or
elsewhere.
The term “fraudulently” means an intention that the thing in question shall be used or acted upon as
genuine, whether in Nigeria or elsewhere, to the prejudice of some person, whether a particular person
or not, or that some person whether a particular person, or not, shall, in the belief that the thing in
question is genuine, be induced to do or refrain from doing some act, whether in Nigeria or elsewhere.

Section 469 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Uttering cancelled or exhausted documents

Any person who knowingly utters as and for a subsisting and effectual document any document which
has by any lawful authority been ordered to be revoked, cancelled, or suspended, or the operation of
which has ceased by effluxion of time, or by death, or by the happening of any other event, is guilty of
an offence of the same kind and is liable to the same punishment as if he had forged the document.

Section 470 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Uttering cancelled stamps

Any person who knowingly utters as and for a valid and uncancelled stamp a stamp, or an impression of
a seal, used for any purpose connected with the public revenue of Nigeria or of any part of a
Commonwealth country or any country under the protection of a Commonwealth country which has
been already used or which has been cancelled, is guilty of an offence of the same kind and is liable to
the same punishment as if he had forged the stamp or seal.
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]

Section 471 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Procuring execution of documents by false pretences

Any person who, by means of any false and fraudulent representation as to the nature, contents, or
operation, of a document, procures another to sign or execute the document, is guilty of an offence of
the same kind and is liable to the same punishment as if he had forged the document.

Section 472 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Obliterating crossings on cheques

Any person who, with intent to defraud(
1) obliterates, adds to or alters the crossing on a cheque; or
(2) knowingly alters a crossed cheque, the crossing on which has been obliterated, added to, or
altered,
is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 473 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Making documents without authority

Any person who, with intent to defraud‐
(1) without lawful authority or excuse, makes, signs, or executes, for or in the name or on
account of another person, whether by procuration or otherwise, any document or writing; or
(2) knowingly utters any document or writing so made, signed, or executed, by another person,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 474 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Demanding property upon forged testamentary instruments

Any person who procures the delivery or payment to himself or any other person of any property or
money by virtue of any probate or letters of administration granted upon a forged testamentary
instrument, knowing the testamentary instrument to have been forged, or upon or by virtue of any
probate or letters of administration obtained by false evidence, knowing the grant to have been so
obtained, is guilty of an offence of the same kind and is liable to the same punishment as if he had
forged the document or thing by virtue whereof he procures the delivery or payment.

Section 475 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Purchasing forged bank notes

Any person who, without lawful authority or excuse, the proof of which lies on him, purchases or
receives from any person, or has in his possession, a forged bank note, whether filled up or in blank,
knowing it to be forged, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 476 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Falsifying warrants for money payable under public authority

Any person who, being employed in the public service, knowingly and with intent to defraud makes out
or delivers to any person a warrant for the payment of any money payable by public authority for a
greater or less amount than that to which the person on whose behalf the warrant is made out is
entitled, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 477 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Falsification of register

Any person who, having the actual custody of any register or record kept by lawful authority, knowingly
permits any entry which, in any material particular, is to his knowledge false, to be made in the register
or record, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 478 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Sending false certificate of marriage to registrar

Any person who signs or transmits to a person authorised by law to register marriages, a certificate of
marriage, or any document purporting to be a certificate of marriage, which in any material particular is
to his knowledge false, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 479 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

False statements for the purpose of registers of births, deaths, and marriages

Any person who knowingly and with intent to procure the same to be inserted in a register of births,
deaths, or marriages, makes any false statements touching any matter required by law to be registered
in any such register, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.

The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 443-462 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 443-462 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 443 to 462 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 42 (Offences) of the code.

Section 443 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Arson

Any person who wilfully sets fire to any of the following things‐
(a) any building or structure whatever, whether completed or not;
(b) any vessel, whether completed or not;
(c) any stack of cultivated vegetable produce, or of mineral or vegetable fuel;
(d) a mine, or the workings, fittings, or appliances of a mine,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 444 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Attempts to commit arson

Any person who‐
(1) attempts unlawfully to set fire to any such thing as is mentioned in section 443 of this Code;
or
(2) wilfully and unlawfully sets fire to anything which is so situated that any such thing as is
mentioned in section 443 of this Code is likely to catch fire from it,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 445 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Setting fire to crops and growing plants

Any person who wilfully and unlawfully sets fire to any of the following things‐
(a) a crop of cultivated vegetable produce, whether standing or cut;
(b) a crop of hay or grass under cultivation, whether the natural or indigenous products of
the soil or not, and whether standing or cut;
(c) any standing trees, saplings, or shrubs, whether indigenous or not, under cultivation,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 446 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Any person who‐
(a) attempts unlawfully to set fire to any such thing as is mentioned in section 445 of this Code; or
(b) wilfully and unlawfully sets fire to anything which is so situated that any such thing as is
mentioned in section 445 of this Code is likely to catch fire from it, is guilty of felony and is liable to
imprisonment for seven years.

Section 447 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Casting away ships

Any person who‐
(1) wilfully and unlawfully casts away or destroys any vessel, whether complete or not; or
(2) wilfully and unlawfully does any act which tends to the immediate loss or destruction of a
vessel in distress; or
(3) with intent to bring a vessel into danger, interferes with any light, beacon, buoy, mark, or
signal used for purposes of navigation, or exhibits any false light or signal,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 448 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Attempts to cast away ships

Any person who attempts unlawfully to cast away or destroy a vessel, whether completed or not, or
attempts unlawfully to do any act tending to the immediate loss or destruction of a vessel in distress, is
guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 449 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Obstructing and injuring railways

Any person who unlawfully and with intent to obstruct the use of a railway or to injure any property
upon a railway‐
(1) deals with the railway or with anything whatever upon or near the railway in such a manner
as to affect or endanger the free and safe use of the railway; or
(2) shows any light or signal, or in any way deal with any existing light or signal, upon or near
the railway; or
(3) by any omission to do any act which it is his duty to do, causes the free and safe use of the
railway to be endangered,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 450 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Injuring animals

Any person who wilfully and unlawfully kills, maims, or wounds, any animal capable of being stolen, is
guilty of an offence.
If the animal in question is a horse, mare, gelding, ass, mule, camel, bull, cow, ox, goat, pig, ram, wether,
or ostrich, or the young of any such animal, the offender is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for seven years.
In any other case the offender is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 451 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Malicious injuries in general

Any person who wilfully and unlawfully destroys or damages any property, is guilty of an offence, which,
unless otherwise stated, is a misdemeanor and he is liable, if no other punishment is provided, to
imprisonment for two years.
Punishment in special cases
Destroying or damaging an inhabited house or a vessel with explosives
(1) If the property in question is a dwelling‐house or a vessel, and the injury is caused by the explosion
of any explosive substance, and if‐
(a) any person is in the dwelling‐house or vessel; or
(b) the destruction or damage actually endangers the life of any person,
the offender is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.

River bank or wall, or navigation works, or bridges
(2) (a) If the property in question is a bank or wall of a river, canal, aqueduct, reservoir, or
inland water, and the injury causes actual danger of inundation or damage to any land
or building; or
(b) if the property in question is a railway, or is a bridge, viaduct, or aqueduct, which is
constructed over a highway, railway or canal, or over which a railway, highway, or canal
passes, and the property is destroyed; or
(c) if the property in question, being a railway, or being any such bridge, viaduct, or
aqueduct, is damaged, and the damage is done with intent to render the railway, bridge,
viaduct, or aqueduct, or the highway, railway, or canal passing over or under the same,
or any part thereof, dangerous or impassable, and the same or any part thereof is
thereby rendered dangerous or impassable,
the offender is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.
Wills and registers
(3) If the property in question is a testamentary instrument, whether the testator is living or
dead, or a register which is authorised or required by law to be kept for authenticating or recording the
title to any property, or for recording births, baptisms, marriages, deaths, or burials, or a copy of any
part of any such register which is required by law to be sent to any public officer, the offender is guilty of
a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
Wrecks
(4) If the property in question is a vessel in distress or wrecked, or stranded, or anything which
belongs to such vessel, the offender is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Railways
(5) If the property in question is any part of a railway, or any work connected with a railway, the
offender is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Other things of special value
(6) (a) if the property in question, being a vessel, whether complete or not, is destroyed; or
(b) if the property in question, being a vessel, whether complete or not, is damaged, and the
damage is done with intent to destroy it or render it useless; or manufacturing machine, or a
manufacturing implement, or a machine or appliance used or intended to be used for
performing any process connected with the preparation of any agricultural or pastoral produce,
is destroyed; or
(c) if the property in question is a light, beacon, buoy, mark, or signal, used for the purposes of
navigation, or for the guidance of persons engaged in navigation; or
(d) if the property in question is a bank or wall of a river, canal, aqueduct, reservoir, or inland
water, or a work which appertains to a dock, canal, aqueduct, reservoir, or inland water, or
which is used for the purposes of lading or unlading goods; or
(e) if the property in question, being a railway, or being a bridge, viaduct, or aqueduct, which is
constructed over a highway, railway or canal, or over which a highway, railway, or canal passes,
is damaged, and the damage is done with intent to render the railway, bridge, viaduct, or
aqueduct, or the highway, railway, or canal, passing over or under the same, or any part thereof,
dangerous or impassable; or
(f) if the property in question, being anything in process of manufacture, or an agricultural or an
agricultural or manufacturing machine, or a manufacturing implement, or a machine or
appliance used or intended to be used for performing any process connected with the
preparation of any agricultural or pastoral produce, is destroyed ; or
(g) if the property in question, being any such thing, machine, implement, or appliance, as last
aforesaid, is damaged, and the damage is done with intent to destroy the thing in question or to
render it useless; or
(h) if the property in question is a shaft or a passage of a mine, and the injury is done with intent to
damage the mine or to obstruct its working; or
(i) if the property in question is a machine, appliance, apparatus, building, erection, bridge, or
road, appertaining to or used with a mine, whether the thing in question is completed or not; or
(f) if the property in question, being a rope, chain, or tackle, or whatever material, which is used in
a mine, or upon any way or work appertaining to or used with a mine, is destroyed; or
(k) if the property in question, being any such rope, chain, or tackle, as last aforesaid, is damaged,
and the damage is done with intent to destroy the thing in question or to render it useless; or
(I) if the property in question is a well, or bore for water, or the dam, bank, wall, or floodgate of a
millpond or pool,
the offender is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Deeds and records
(7) If the property in question is a document which is deposited or kept in a public office, or
which is evidence of title to any land or estate in land, the offender is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for seven years.

Section 452 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Attempts to destroy property by explosives

Any person who, unlawfully and with intent to destroy or damage any property, puts any explosive
substance in any place whatever, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

*Section 453 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Attempts to injure mines

Any person who, with intent to injure a mine or to obstruct the working of a mine‐
(1) unlawfully, and otherwise than by an act done underground in the course of working an
adjoining mine‐
(a) causes water to run into the mine or into any subterranean passage communicating with the
mine; or
(b) obstructs any shaft or passage of the mine; or
(2) unlawfully obstructs the working of any machine, appliance, or apparatus, appertaining to or
used with the mine, whether the thing in question is completed or not; or
(3) unlawfully and with intent to render it useless, injures or unfastens a rope, chain, or tackle of
whatever material, which is used in the mine or upon any way or work appertaining to or used with the
mine,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 454 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Interfering with signals used for purposes of navigation

Any person who wilfully and unlawfully removes, defaces, or renders invisible, any light, beacon, buoy,
mark or signal, used for purposes of navigation, or for the guidance of persons engaged in navigation, or
unlawfully attempts to remove, deface or render invisible, any such thing, is guilty of a felony and is
liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 455 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Interfering with navigation works

Any person who‐
(1) wilfully and unlawfully removes or disturbs any fixed objects or materials used for securing a
bank or wall of a river, canal, aqueduct, reservoir, or inland water, or for securing any work which
appertains to a dock, canal, aqueduct, reservoir, or inland water, or which is used for purposes of
navigation or lading or unlading goods; or
(2) unlawfully does any act with intent to obstruct the carrying on, completion, or maintenance
of the navigation of a navigable river or canal, and thereby obstructs such carrying on, completion, or
maintenance,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 456 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Communicating infectious diseases to animals

Any person who wilfully and unlawfully causes, or is concerned in causing, or attempts to cause, any
infectious disease to be communicated to or among any animal or animals capable of being stolen, is
guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 457 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Removing boundary marks with intent to defraud

Any person who wilfully and unlawfully, and with intent to defraud, removes or defaces any object or
mark which has been lawfully erected or made as an indication of the boundary of any land, is guilty of a
felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.

Section 458 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Wilful damage, etc., to survey and boundary marks

Any person who‐
(1) wilfully removes, defaces or injures any survey mark or boundary mark which shall have
been made or erected by or under the direction of any government department or in the course of or
for the purposes of a government survey; or
(2) being under an obligation to maintain in repair any boundary mark made or erected as
aforesaid, neglects or refuses to repair the same; or
(3) wilfully removes, defaces or injures any mark erected by an intending applicant for any lease,
licence or right under the Minerals and Mining Act,
[Cap. M12.]
is guilty of a simple offence and is liable to imprisonment for three months or to a fine of forty naira, and
may further be ordered by the court to pay the cost of repairing or replacing the survey mark or
boundary mark and of making any survey rendered necessary by the offender’s act or neglect.

Section 459 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Obstructing railways

Any person who, by any unlawful act, or by any intentional omission to do any act which it is his duty to
do, causes any engine or vehicle in use upon a railway to be obstructed in its passage on the railway, is
guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 459A of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Obstructing aircraft

Any person who, by any unlawful act, obstructs, causes an alteration to be made in the course of, or in
any way whatsoever hinders or impedes the movement of any aircraft, which is in motion on or in flight
over any aerodrome, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 459B of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Trespass on aerodrome

Any person who commits any nuisance or trespass in or upon any aerodrome or in or upon any building
or premises situated on any aerodrome, is guilty of a simple offence and IS liable to imprisonment for
three months or to a fine of forty naira.

Section 460 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Penalties for damage, etc., to railway works

Any person who‐
(1) wilfully damages, injures, or obstructs any work, way, road, building, turnstile, gate, toll bar,
fence, weighing machine, engine, tender, carriage, wagon, truck, material, or plant acquired for
or belonging to any railway works; or
(2) pulls up, removes, defaces, or destroys, or in any way interferes with, any poles, stakes, flags,
pegs, lines, marks, or anything driven or placed in or upon the ground, trees, stones, or building,
or any other material, belonging to any railway works; or
(3) commits any nuisance or trespass in or upon any land, building, or premises, acquired for or
belonging to any railway works; or
(4) wilfully molests, hinders, or obstructs, the officer in charge of any railway or his assistants or
workmen in the execution of any work done or to be done in reference to the construction or
maintenance of any such railway,
is guilty of a simple offence and is liable to imprisonment for three months or to a fine of forty naira.

Section 461 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Sending letters threatening to burn or destroy

Any person who, knowing the contents of the writing, causes any person to receive any writing
threatening that any building or vessel, whether complete or not, or any stack of cultivated vegetable
produce, or any such produce that is in or under a building, shall be burnt or destroyed, is guilty of a
felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 462 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Arrest without warrant

A person found committing any of the misdemeanors or simple offences defined in this Chapter of this
Code may be arrested without warrant by a peace officer or a member of the police force, or by the
owner of the property injured or his servant, or by any person authorised by such owner or servant.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 434-442 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 434-442 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 434, 435, 436, 437,438, 439, 440, 441, 442 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 40 (Frauds by trustees and officers of companies and corporations: false accounting) and Chapter 41 (Definitions) of the code.

Section 434 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Trustees fraudulently disposing of trust property

Any person who, being a trustee of any property, destroys the property with intent to defraud, or, with
intent to defraud, converts the property to any use unauthorised by the trust, is guilty of a felony and is
liable to imprisonment for seven years.

The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

If civil proceedings have been taken against a trustee in respect of any act done by him, which is an
offence under the provisions of this section of this Code, he cannot be afterwards prosecuted for the
same cause, as for an offence, on the complaint of the person by whom the civil proceedings were taken
without the sanction of the court or judge before whom the civil proceedings were had or are pending.

For the purposes of this section, the term “trustee” includes the following persons and no others(
a) trustees upon express trusts created by a deed, will, or instrument in writing, whether
for a public or private or charitable purpose;
(b) trustees appointed by or under the authority of an Act, law or statute for any such
purpose;
(c) persons upon whom the duties of any such trust as aforesaid devolve;
(d) executors and administrators.

Section 435 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Directors and officers of corporations or companies fraudulently appropriating property or
keeping fraudulent accounts, or falsifying books or accounts

Any person who‐
(1) being a director or officer of a corporation or company, receives or possesses himself as such
of any of the property of the corporation or company otherwise than in payment of a just debt or
demand, and, with intent to defraud, omits either to make a full and true entry thereof in the books and
accounts of the corporation or company, or to cause or direct such an entry to be made therein; or
(2) being a director, officer, or member of a corporation or company, does any of the following
acts with intent to defraud‐
(a) destroys, alters, mutilates, or falsifies, any book, document, valuable security, or account, which
belongs to the corporation or company, or any entry in any such book, documents, or account, or is
privy to any such act; or
(b) makes or is privy to making any false entry in any such book, document or account; or
(c) omits or is privy to omitting any material particular from any such book, document or
account,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 436 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

False statements by officials of companies

Any person who, being a promoter, director, officer, or auditor, of a corporation or company, either
existing or intended to be formed, makes, circulates, or publishes, or concurs in making, circulating, or
publishing, any written statement or account which in any material particular, is to his knowledge false,
with intent thereby to effect any of the following purposes‐
(a) to deceive or to defraud any member, shareholder, or creditor, of the corporation or
company, whether a particular person or not;
(b) to induce any person, whether a particular person or not, to become a member of, or to
entrust or advance any property to, the corporation or company, or to enter into any
security for the benefit thereof,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 437 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Defence

It is a defence to a charge of any of the offences defined in this Chapter to prove that the accused
person, before being charged with the offence, and in consequence of the compulsory process of a
court in any action or proceedings instituted in good faith by a party aggrieved, or in a compulsory
examination or deposition before a court, disclosed on oath the act alleged to constitute the offence.
A person is not entitled to refuse to answer any question or interrogatory in any civil proceeding
in any court, on the ground that his doing so might tend to show that he had committed any such
offence.

Section 438 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Fraudulent false accounting

Any person who, being a clerk or servant, or being employed or acting in the capacity of a clerk or
servant, does any of the following acts with intent to defraud‐
(a) destroys, alters, mutilates, or falsifies, any book, document, valuable security, or
account, which belongs to or is in the possession of his employer, or has been received
by him on account of his employer, or any entry in any such book, document, or
account, or is privy to any such act; or
(b) makes, or is privy to making any false entry in any such book, document, or account; or
(c) omits, or is privy to omitting, any material particular from any such book, document, or
account,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 439 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

False accounting by public officer

Any person who, being an officer charged with the receipt, custody, or management of any part of the
public revenue, knowingly furnishes any false statement or return of any money or property received by
him or entrusted to his care, or of any balance of money or property in his possession or under his
control, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

CHAPTER 41 – Definitions

Section 440 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Unlawful acts

An act which causes injury to the property of another, and which is done without his consent, is
unlawful unless it is authorised or justified or excused by law.
It is immaterial that the person who does the injury is in possession of the property injured or has a
partial interest in it.
A person is not criminally responsible for any injury caused to property by the use of such force as is
reasonably necessary for the purpose of defending or protecting himself, or any other person, or any
property, from injury which he believes, on reasonable grounds, to be imminent.

Section 441 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Acts done with intent to defraud

When an act which causes injury to property, and which would be otherwise lawful, is done with intent
to defraud any person, it is unlawful.
When an act which causes injury to property is done with intent to defraud any person, it is immaterial
that the property in question is the property of the offender himself.

Section 442 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Damage

The term “damage” used in relation to a document, or to a writing or inscription, includes obliterating
and rendering illegible, either in whole or in part.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 410-433 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 410-433 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 410 to 433 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 37 (Burglary: housebreaking: and like offences), chapter 38 (Obtaining property by false pretences: cheating), and Chapter 39 (Receiving property stolen or fraudulently obtained and like offences) of the Code.

CHAPTER 37 – Burglary: Housebreaking: and like offences

Section 410 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definitions

A person who breaks any part, whether external or internal, of a building, or opens by unlocking, pulling,
pushing, lifting, or any other means whatever, any door, window, shutter, cellar flap, or other thing,
intended to close or cover an opening in a building, or an opening giving passage from one part of a
building to another, is said to break the building.
A person is said to enter a building as soon as any part of his body or any part of any instrument used by
him is within the building.
A person who obtains entrance into a building by means of any threat or artifice used for that purpose,
or by collusion with any person in the building, or who enters any chimney or other aperture of the
building permanently left open for any necessary purpose, but not intended to be ordinarily used as a
means of entrance, is deemed to have broken and entered the building.

Section 411 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Housebreaking: burglary

Any person who‐
(1) breaks and enters the dwelling‐house of another with intent to commit a felony therein; or
(2) having entered the dwelling‐house of another with intent to commit a felony therein, or
having committed a felony in the dwelling‐house of another, breaks out of the dwelling‐house,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
If the offence is committed in the night, the offender is liable to imprisonment for life.

Section 412 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Entering dwelling‐house with intent to commit felony

Any person who enters or is in the dwelling‐house of another with intent to commit a felony therein, is
guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
If the offence is committed in the night, the offender is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 413 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Breaking into building and committing felony

Any person who‐
(1) breaks and enters a schoolhouse, shop, warehouse, store, office, or counting‐house, or a
building which is adjacent to a dwelling‐house and occupied with it but is not part of it, and commits a
felony therein; or
(2) having committed a felony in a schoolhouse, shop, warehouse, store, office, or countinghouse,
or in any such other building as last mentioned, breaks out of the building,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 414 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Breaking into building with intent to commit felony

Any person who breaks and enters a schoolhouse, shop, warehouse, store, office, or counting‐house, or
a building which is adjacent to a dwelling‐house and occupied with it but is not part of it, with intent to
commit a felony therein, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 415 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Breaking into place of worship and committing felony

Any person who breaks and enters a building ordinarily used for religious worship and commits a felony
therein, or having committed a felony in any such building breaks out of it, is guilty of a felony and is
liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 416 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Breaking into place of worship with intent to commit felony

Any person who breaks and enters a building ordinarily used for religious worship, with intent to commit
a felony therein, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 417 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Persons found armed, etc., with intent to commit felony

Any person who is found in any of the following circumstances(
a) being armed with any dangerous or offensive weapon or instrument, and being so
armed with intent to break or enter a dwelling‐house, and to commit a felony therein;
(b) being armed as aforesaid by night, and being so armed with intent to break or enter
any building whatever, and to commit a felony therein;
(c) having in his possession by night without lawful excuse, the proof of which lies on him,
any instrument of housebreaking;
(d) having in his possession by day, any such instrument with intent to commit a felony;
(e) having his face masked or blackened or being otherwise disguised, with intent to
commit a felony;
(f) being in any building whatever by night with intent to commit a felony therein; or
(g) being in any building whatever by day with intent to commit a felony therein, and
having taken precautions to conceal his presence,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
If the offender has been previously convicted of a felony relating to property, he is liable to
imprisonment for seven years.

CHAPTER 38 – Obtaining property by false pretences: cheating

Section 418 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definition

Any representation made by words, writing, or conduct, of a matter of fact, either past or present,
which representation is false in fact and which the person making it knows to be false or does not
believe to be true, is a false pretence.

Section 419 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Obtaining goods by false pretences

Any person who by any false pretence, and with intent to defraud, obtains from any other person
anything capable of being stolen, or induces any other person to deliver to any person anything capable
of being stolen, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
If the thing is of the value of one thousand naira or upwards, he is liable to imprisonment for
seven years.
It is immaterial that the thing is obtained or its delivery is induced through the medium of a contract
induced by the false pretence.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant unless found committing the offence.

Section 419A of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Obtaining credit by false pretences or other fraud

(1) Any person who by any false pretence or by means of any other fraud obtains credit for
himself or any other person‐
[1966 No. 84.]
(a) in incurring any debt or liability; or
(b) by means of an entry in a debtor and creditor account between the person giving and
the person receiving credit,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
(2) The offender cannot be arrested without warrant unless found committing the offence.
419B. Presumption as to false pretences in certain circumstances
Where in any proceedings for an offence under section 419 or 4l9A of this Code it is proved that the
accused‐
[1966 No. 84.]
(a) obtained or induced the delivery of anything capable of being stolen; or
(b) obtained credit for himself or any other person, by means of a cheque that, when
presented for payment within a reasonable time, was dishonoured on the ground that
no funds or insufficient funds were standing to the credit of the drawer of the cheque in
the bank on which the cheque was drawn,
the thing or its delivery shall be deemed to have been obtained or induced, or the credit shall be
deemed to have been obtained, by a false pretence, unless the court is satisfied by evidence that when
the accused issued the cheque he had reasonable grounds for believing, and did in fact believe, that it
would be honoured if presented within a reasonable time after its issue by him.

Section 420 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Obtaining execution of a security by false pretences

Any person who by any false pretence, and with intent to defraud, induces any person to execute, make,
accept, endorse, alter, or destroy, the whole or any part of any valuable security, or to write, impress, or
affix, any name or seal upon or to any paper or parchment in order that it may be afterwards made or
converted into or used or dealt with as a valuable security, is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant unless found committing the offence.

Section 421 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Cheating

Any person who by means of any fraudulent trick or device obtains from any other person anything
capable of being stolen, or induces any other person to deliver to any person anything capable of being
stolen or to pay or deliver to any person any money or goods, or any greater sum of money or greater
quantity of goods than he would have paid or delivered but for such trick or device, is guilty of a
misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.
A person found committing the offence may be arrested without warrant.

Section 422 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Conspiracy to defraud

Any person who conspires with another by deceit or any fraudulent means to affect the market price of
anything publicly sold, or to defraud the public or any person, whether a particular person or not, or to
extort any property from any person, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 423 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Frauds on sale or mortgage of property

Any person who, being a seller or mortgagor of any property, or being the solicitor or agent of any such
seller or mortgagor, with intent to induce the purchaser or mortgagee to accept the title offered or
produced to him, and with intent to defraud‐
(1) conceals from the purchaser or mortgagee any instrument material to the title, or any
encumbrance; or
(2) falsifies any pedigree on which the title depends or may depend; or
(3) makes any false statement as to the title offered or conceals any fact material thereto,
is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Section 424 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Pretending to exercise witchcraft or tell fortunes

Any person who for gain or reward pretends to exercise or use any kind of witchcraft, juju, sorcery,
enchantment, or conjuration, or undertakes to tell fortunes, or pretends from his skill or knowledge in
any occult science to discover where or in what manner anything supposed to have been stolen or lost
may be found, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year.

Section 425 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Obtaining registration, etc., by false pretence

Any person who wilfully procures or attempts to procure for himself or any other person any
registration, licence or certificate under any Act or law or under any regulation made under the Nigerian
(Constitution) Order in Council, 1951, or the Nigerian (Constitution) order in Council, 1954, or the
Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, by any false pretence, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and is
liable to imprisonment for one year.
[L.N. 155 of 1960. Cap. C23.]

Section 426 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

(Repealed by Ordinance No. 20 of 1955).

CHAPTER 39 – Receiving property stolen or fraudulently obtained and like offences

Section 427 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Receiving stolen property, etc.

Any person who receives anything which has been obtained by means of any act constituting a felony or
misdemeanor, or by means of any act done at a place not in Nigeria, which if it had been done in Nigeria
would have constituted a felony or misdemeanor, and which is an offence under the laws in force in the
place where it was done, knowing the same to have been so obtained, is guilty of a felony.
If the offence by means of which the thing was obtained is a felony, the offender is liable to
imprisonment for fourteen years, except in the case in which the thing so obtained was postal matter, or
any chattel, money or valuable security contained therein, in which case the offender is liable to
imprisonment for life.
In any other case the offender is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
For the purpose of proving the receiving of anything, it is sufficient to show that the accused person has,
either alone or jointly with some other person, had the thing in his possession, or has aided in
concealing it or disposing of it.

Section 428 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Unlawful possession of arms, etc., belonging to armed or police forces

Any person who‐
[L.N. 112 of 1964.]
(a) knowingly detains, buys, exchanges, or receives, from any non‐commissioned officer or private
of the armed forces of Nigeria or from any member of the police forces, or from any deserter
from either of such forces, or from any person acting for and on behalf of any of the persons
above named; or
(b) solicits or entices any of the said persons to sell, make away with, or dispose of; or
(c) shall be employed by any of the said persons, well knowing him to belong to one or other of
such forces in one of the several capacities hereinbefore mentioned, or to be a deserter from
any of the said forces, to sell, make away with, or dispose of; or
(d) shall have in his possession and not give a satisfactory account of his possession of any arms,
ammunition, clothing, accoutrements, medals or other appointments, furnished for the use of
the armed forces of Nigeria or of the police forces,
is liable to a fine of forty naira and to pay double the value of all or any of the several articles which he
shall so become or be possessed of.

Section 429 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Receiving after change of ownership

When a thing has been obtained by means of any act constituting a felony or misdemeanor, or by means
of an act done at a place not in Nigeria, which if it had been done in Nigeria would have constituted an
offence, and which is an offence under the laws in force in the place where it was done, and another
person has acquired a lawful title to it, a subsequent receiving of the thing is not an offence although
the receiver knows that the thing had previously been so obtained.

Section 430 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Having possession of thing reasonably suspected of having been stolen

(1) Any person who is charged before any court with having in his possession or under his
control in any manner or in any place, or for that he at any time within the three months immediately
preceding the making of the complaint, did have in his possession or under his control in any manner or
in any place, anything which is reasonably suspected of having been stolen or unlawfully obtained, and
who does not give an account, to the satisfaction of the court, as to how he came by the same, is guilty
of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of two hundred naira or to imprisonment for six
months.

(2) Where any person is charged before any court with having or with having had in his
possession or under his control in any manner or in any place anything which has been stolen or
unlawfully obtained, or which is reasonably suspected of having been stolen or unlawfully obtained, and
declares that he received the same for some other person or that he was employed as a carrier, agent or
servant for some other person, the court is hereby authorised and required, if practicable, to cause
every such other person and also if necessary every former or pretended purchaser or other person
through whose possession such thing as aforesaid has passed or who has had control thereof, to be
brought before it and to examine witnesses upon oath touching the same; and if it appears to the court
that any person has had possession or control of such thing and had reasonable cause to believe the
same to have been stolen or unlawfully obtained, every such person shall be deemed to have had
possession or control of such thing at the time and place when and where the same was found or seized,
and is guilty of an offence and liable, on conviction to a fine of two hundred naira or to imprisonment
for six months.

(3) The possession of or control by a carrier, agent or servant shall be deemed to be the
possession of or control by the person who employed such carrier, agent or servant to have or deal with
such thing and such person shall be liable on conviction to the punishment herein mentioned.
(4) The offender may be arrested without warrant.

Section 431 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Unlawfully using animals or vehicles

Any person who unlawfully uses a horse, mare, gelding, ass, mule, camel, ostrich, bull, cow, ox, ram,
ewe, wether, goat, or pig, or the young of any such animal, or any cycle or other vehicle whatsoever
without the consent of the owner, or of the person in lawful possession thereof, is guilty of a
misdemeanor, and is liable to imprisonment for one year, or to a fine of forty naira for every animal or
vehicle so used.
The offender may be arrested without warrant by a police officer, or by the owner of the property in
question, or his servant, or by any person authorised by such owner or servant.

Section 432 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Suspicion of stealing animals

When any horse, mare, gelding, ass, mule, camel, ostrich, bull, cow, ox, ram, ewe, wether, goat, or pig,
or the young of any of such animal is suspected, on reasonable grounds, to have been stolen, any person
in whose possession or custody the skin, feathers or carcass, or any part of the skin or carcass, of the
animal or bird so suspected to have been stolen, is found, is guilty of an offence, unless he proves that
he came lawfully by the thing in question; and he is liable to a fine of one hundred naira.
The offender may be arrested without warrant by a police officer, or by the owner of the property in
question, or his servant, or by any person authorised by such owner or servant.

Section 433 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Taking reward for recovery of property obtained by means of felony or misdemeanour

Any person who corruptly receives or obtains, or corruptly agrees to receive or obtain, any property or
benefit of any kind upon an agreement or understanding that he will help any person to recover
anything which has been obtained by means of any act constituting a felony or misdemeanor, or by
means of any act done at a place not in Nigeria, which if it had been done in Nigeria would have
constituted an offence, and which is an offence under the laws in force in the place where it was done,
is, unless he has used all due diligence to cause the offender to be brought to trial for the offence, guilty
of a felony, and liable to imprisonment for seven years.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 401-409 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 401-409 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 401 to 409 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 36 (Stealing with violence: extortion by threats) of the code.

Section 401 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definition of robbery

Any person who steals anything and, at or immediately before or immediately after the time of stealing
it, uses or threatens to use actual violence to any person or property in order to obtain or retain the
thing stolen or to prevent or overcome resistance to its being stolen or retained, is said to be guilty of
robbery.

Section 402 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Punishment of robbery

(1) Any person who commits the offence of robbery shall upon conviction be sentenced to
imprisonment for not less than 21 years.
(2) If‐
(a) any offender mentioned in subsection (1) of this section is armed with any firearms or
any offensive weapon or any obnoxious or chemical materials or is in company with any
person so armed; or
(b) at or immediately before or immediately after the time of robbery the said offender
wounds any person,
the offender shall upon conviction be sentenced to death.

Section 403 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Punishment for attempted robbery, etc.

(1) Any person who with intent to steal anything, assaults any other person and at or
immediately after the time of assault, uses or threatens to use actual violence to any other person or
any property in order to obtain the thing intended to be stolen shall upon conviction be sentenced to
imprisonment for not less than fourteen years but not more than twenty years.
[1970 No. 47.]
(2) If‐
(a) any offender mentioned in subsection (1) of this section, is armed with any firearms or
any offensive weapon or is in company with any other person so armed; or
(b) at or immediately before or immediately after the time of the assault the offender
wounds or uses any other personal violence to any person,
the offender shall upon conviction be sentenced to imprisonment for life with or without whipping.
(3) Any person found in any public place in possession of any firearms, whether real or
imitation, and in circumstances reasonably indicating that the possession of the firearms is with intent
to the immediate or eventual commission by that person or any other person of any offence under
section 402 of this Code shall upon conviction be sentenced to imprisonment for not less than fourteen
years or more than twenty years.

Section 403A of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Conspiracy to commit robbery

Any person who conspires with any person to commit an offence under section 402 of this Code,
whether or not he is present when the offence is committed or attempted to be committed, shall be
deemed to be guilty of the offence as a principal offender and shall be punished accordingly.

Section 403B of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definition of firearms and offensive weapons

For the purposes of sections 402, 403 and 403A of this Code”
firearms” includes any canon, gun, flint‐lock gun, revolver, pistol, explosive or ammunition or
other firearm, whether whole or in detached pieces;
“offensive weapon” means any article, apart from a firearm, made or adapted for use for
causing injury to the person or intended by the person having it for such use by him and it includes an
air gun, air pistol, bow and arrow, spear, cutlass, matchet, dagger, cudgel, or any piece of wood, metal,
glass or stone capable of being used as an offensive weapon.

Section 404 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Public servants demanding property, etc.

(1) Any person who, being employed in the public service of Nigeria, or in that of any other
government, corruptly and under colour of his employment‐
(a) demands or takes property from any person; or
(b) compels any person to sell any property at other than its fair market value; or
(c) obtains lodging from and against the will of any person without payment or for
inadequate payment; or
(d) compels, whether partially or wholly for his own profit, any person to work without
payment or for inadequate payment,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for five years.
(2) Any person who, falsely representing himself by words, conduct, or otherwise, to be a
person employed in the public service of Nigeria, or of any other government, or to be an agent of or act
under the authority of, the government, unlawfully and in such assumed character‐
(a) does any of the acts or things specified in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of subsection
(1) of this section; or
(b) compels or orders any person to hand any property over to any other person, whether
such property does or does not rightly belong, or is or is not rightly due, to the lastnamed
person,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for five years.
(3) Any person attempting, or inciting, soliciting, counselling, procuring, aiding, or abetting any
person to commit any of the offences enumerated in subsections (1) and (2) of this section, is guilty of a
felony and is liable to imprisonment for five years.

Section 405 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Assault with intent to steal

Any person who assaults any person with intent to steal anything, is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for three years.

Section 406 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Demanding property with menaces with intent to steal

Any person who, with intent to steal anything, demands it from any person with threats of any injury or
detriment of any kind to be caused to him, either by the offender or by any other person, if the demand
is not complied with, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.

Section 407 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Demanding property by written threats

Any person who, with intent to extort or gain anything from any person, and knowing the contents of
the writing, causes any person to receive any writing demanding anything from any person without
reasonable or probable cause, and containing threats of any injury or detriment of any kind to be caused
to any person, either by the offender or any other person, if the demand is not complied with, is guilty
of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 408 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Attempts at extortion by threats

Any person who, with intent to extort or gain anything from any person‐
(1) accuses or threatens to accuse any person of committing any felony or misdemeanor, or of
offering or making any solicitation or threat to any person as an inducement to commit or permit the
commission of any felony or misdemeanor; or
(2) threatens that any person shall be accused by any other person of any felony or
misdemeanor or of any such act; or
(3) knowing the contents of the writing, causes any person to receive any writing containing any
such accusation or threat as aforesaid,
is guilty of a felony and if the accusation or threat of accusation is of‐
(a) an offence for which the punishment of death or imprisonment for life may be inflicted;
or
(b) any of the offences defined in Chapter 21 of this Code, or an attempt to commit any of
such offences; or
(c) an assault with intent to have carnal knowledge of any person against the order of
nature, or an unlawful and indecent assault upon a male person; or
(d) an attempt to commit the offence of rape, or an assault with intent to commit the
offence of rape, or an unlawful and indecent assault upon a woman or girl; or
(e) a solicitation or threat offered or made to any person as an inducement to commit or
permit the commission of any of the offences aforesaid, the offender is liable to
imprisonment for fourteen years.
In any other case, the offender is liable to imprisonment for three years.
It is immaterial whether the person accused or threatened to be accused has or has not committed the
offence or act of which he is accused or threatened to be accused.

Section 409 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Procuring execution of deeds, etc., by threats

Any person who, with intent to defraud, and by means of any unlawful violence to, or restraint of, the
person of another, or by means of any threat of violence or restraint to be used to the person of
another, or by means of accusing or threatening to accuse any person of committing any felony or
misdemeanor, or by offering or making any solicitation or threat to any person as an inducement to
commit or permit the commission of any offence, compels or induces any person‐
(a) to execute, make, accept, endorse, alter, or destroy, the whole or any part of any
valuable security; or
(b) to write, impress, or affix, any name or seal upon or to any paper or parchment, in
order that it may be afterwards made or converted into or used or dealt with as a
valuable security,
is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf

Section 391-400 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 391-400 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Section 391 to 400 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act is under Chapter 35 (Offences analogous to stealing) of the code.

Section 391 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Concealing registers

Any person who, with intent to defraud, conceals or takes from its place of deposit any register which is
authorised or required by law to be kept for authenticating or recording the title to any property, or for
recording births, baptisms, marriages, deaths, or burials, or a copy of any part of any such register which
is required by law to be sent to any public officer, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for
fourteen years.

Section 392 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Concealing wills

Any person who, with intent to defraud, conceals any testamentary instrument, whether the testator is
living or dead, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.

Section 393 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Concealing deeds

Any person who, with intent to defraud, conceals the whole or part of any document which is evidence
of title to any land or estate in land, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.

Section 394 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Killing animals with intent to steal

Any person who kills any animal capable of being stolen with intent to steal the skin or carcass, or any
part of the skin or carcass, is guilty of an offence and is liable to the same punishment as if he had stolen
the animal.

Section 395 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Severing with intent to steal

Any person who makes anything movable with the intent to steal it, is guilty of an offence and is liable to
the same punishment as if he has stolen the thing after it had become movable.

Section 396 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Fraudulently dealing with minerals in mines

Any person who takes, conceals, or otherwise disposes of, any ore of any metal or mineral in or
about a mine, with intent to defraud any person, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for
three years.

Section 397 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Bringing stolen goods into Nigeria

Any person who, having at any place not in Nigeria obtained any property by any act which if it had been
done in Nigeria would have constituted the offence of stealing, and which is an offence under the laws
in force in the place where it was done, brings such property into the country, or has it in his possession
in Nigeria, is guilty of an offence, and is liable to the same punishment as if he had stolen it in Nigeria;
but so that the punishment does not exceed that which would be incurred for the same act under the
laws in force in the place where the act by which he obtained the property was done.

Section 398 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Fraudulent disposition of mortgaged goods

Any person who, being the mortgagor of mortgaged goods, removes or disposes of the goods without
the consent of the mortgagee and with intent to defraud, is guilty of a felony and is liable to
imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.

Section 399 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Definition of mortgaged goods; consent of mortgagee

In section 398 of this Code, the term “mortgaged goods” includes any goods and chattels of any kind,
and any live animals, and any progeny of any animals and any crops or produce of the earth, whether
growing or severed, which are subject for the time being to the provisions of the written instrument by
which a valid charge or lien is created upon them by way of security of any debt or obligation.
The consent of the mortgagee may be either express or implied from the nature of the property
mortgaged.

Section 400 of the Nigerian Criminal Code Act

Fraudulent appropriation of power

Any person who fraudulently abstracts or diverts to his own use or to the use of any other person any
mechanical, illuminating, or electrical power derived from any machine apparatus, or substance, the
property of another person, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
The offender cannot be arrested without warrant.


Credit: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/C38.pdf